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Box 17, Folder 13, Document 41

http://allenarchive.iac.gatech.edu/originals/ahc_CAR_015_017_013_041.pdf
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  • Title: Box 17, Folder 13, Document 41
  • Text: STATEMENT BY GOVERNOR ROSS R. BARNETT OF MISSISSIPPI BEFORE U. S. SENATE COMMERCE COMMITTEE, JULY 12, 1963. Gentlemen, we are facing one of the most critical times in the history of our nation, Minority groups in our country have taken to the streets to agitate, to demonstrate, to breach the peace, and to provoke violence calculated to blackmail this Congress into passing legislation in direct violation of the United States Constitution. You have been forced to consider this legislation through the pressure and blackmail of mobs in the streets. The President and the Attorney General have encouraged demonstrations, freedom rides, sit-ins, picketing and actual violation of local laws. What is happening in our nation today fits the pattern of what has been happening throughout the world insofar as the Communist activity is concerned. Compare the Communist tactics with a Cuba, a Laos, a Berlin, a Viet Nam, a Haiti, or other parts of the world. Communist tactics are to create a crisis and let it cool off. The same tactics are being practiced in the United States through a Birmingham, and letting it cool off; a Jackson, and letting it cool off; a Danville, Virginia; a Cambridge, Maryland; riots in Philadelphia; and in New York City. It's the same old Communist offensive of attack with a hammer and then withdraw. Attack with a hammer and then withdraw--each time causing more ill will, more racial unrest and pushing a wedge further between existing good relations of the people of a nation. It is the divide, disrupt and conquer technique. The passage of this Civil Rights legislation will positively provoke more violence, not just in the South, but. throughout all areas of our nation. I am convinced that this is a part of the world Communist conspiracy to divide and conquer our country from within. The Communists are, therefore, championing the cause of the Negroes in America as an important part of their drive to mobilize both colored and white for the overthrow of our government. There are those who are so anxious to hold high the banner of the Civil Rights issue that they fail to read some of the writing on the banner. They fail to realize that the Communist Party hopes to incite civil insurrection in the South with the purpose of then fanning the flames into a holocaust in the Northern racial strife areas. To date, they have been disappointed and defeated by the due process of law in the South where law enforcement agencies and level- headed citizens have been able to contain the aggravations of the outside racil agitators. Gentlemen, it is obvious to many of us throughout the country that the racial agitation, strife and conflict that has been stirred up throughout our entire nation is largely Communist-inspired. Racial agitators in Mississippi and leaders of demonstrations in other States have backgrounds that have made many of us, including our local police, state investigating agencies, and the FBI, to be concerned about the real motivation behind these so-called Civil Rights leaders, Your passage of this legislation will be no cure-all for the problems that this nation faces because of racial strife and conflict. The passage of this legislation will, however, mean the complete end of Constitutional government in America and result in racial violence of unimaginable scope. Even the New York Times has said that "with every negro advance, momentum for more violence and agitation increases, not decreases." This legislation is so all-inclusive and so sweeping in its scope that it has been termed by many as the "WHITE SLAVE BILL". Gentlemen, you have all learned through your personal experiences that to try to appease, accommodate, or give concessions to the demands of the arrogant leads only to additional conflicts and additional problems which you didn't face before. Certainly, you are familiar with the results of our policy of appeasement towards Cuba and Laos. The passage of this Civil Rights legislation will lead us into an area of conflict between the races, the like of which we have never known. There will be no end to the constant pressure for more and more and more. The Attorney General has stated that the passage of this Bill would move the problem of so-called diserimination in public accommodatiens out of the streets and into the courts. I question this statement. The Attorney General has been personally responsible for helping to put mobs in the/streets and I can prephesy that this legislation, if enacted, will put hundreds of thousands of white business men in the streets. « Bix The purpose of government should be to protect the individual and to see to it that no one interferes with his private property. The present administration seems to have adopted the very heart of the Socialistic philosophy that the private rights of men are to be tolerated only at the suffrage of the State, What we are seeing today is a grasp for power by certain men in public office who would give to an all-powerful Central Government full control over all phases of the lives of our people. I see this legislation as an attempt by greedy minorities to prostitute the purpose of law and government as a protector of private property, and to use the law to plunder the property of others. If you pass this legislation, you are allowing a minority in our country to force itself upon the majérity of the citizens of our nation. What and where are the rights of the majority? The powers of the Attorney General under this legislation will be so sweeping and so encompassing as to comprise a serious threat, in itself, to the safety and stability of the nation, The Attorney General in his testimony has stated, "I think that it is an injustice that needs to be remedied. We have to find the tools with which to remedy that injustice." In other words, regardless of the Constitution, he, through this legislation, asks for the power to run roughshod over the rights of every individual and dictate to every citizen what he could or could not do with his private property and business. Where is the equal protection of the law? I challenge the newspapers and news media of our country to awaken the man on the street, the small business man, all those who respect law and order, to the fact that this legislation is an open attack on the rights of every individual to the control of his personal, private property. Every citizen has the right to own and operate his own business as he sees fit without interference from any source. To give to an all-powerful Central Government the right to force the owner of a private business to unwillingly do business with anyone creates a new and special right for a minority group in this nation that destroys the property and personal rights of every citizen, - 3- Senator Russell has stated and the press has failed to report, “Our American system has always rejected the idea that one group of citizens may deprive another of legal rights and property by process of agitation, demonstration, intimidation, law defiance and civil disobedience. Every Negro citizen possesses every right that is possessed by any white citizen. But there is nothing in either the Constitution or in Christian principles or common sense and reason which would compel one citizen to share his rights with one of another race at the same place and at the same time. Such compulsion would amount to a complete denial of inalienable rights of the individual to choose or select his associates." . Gentlemen, what could be more unequal and discrimatory than to give one particular class of citizens the privilege of by-passing the normal channels of justice, which other citizens must follow. Under this legislation, any agitator or trouble-maker or crank could bring the owner of any business establishment into Federal Court by merely writing a letter to the U. S. Attorney General. The agitator would be represented, at no cost to himself, by the officials and attorneys of the Federal Government. If this legislation passes, American citizens will have no rights in the ownership and use of their private property, unless they use it in a way that federal officialdom considers to be consistent with the so-called public interest. Today, it seems to many Americans, the demands of the racial agitation groups fix official opinion as to what is the public interest. Tomorrow, the public interest could well be something else. It could even invade the home--or even the bedroom of the individual. The legitimate purpose of government is to protect a man's home as his castle. Does not this same basic American Constitutional fact of life apply equally to a man's own private business? The legislation you have under consideration would use federal police power (as exemplified in our system of Federal courts) to destroy a mants personal property simply to satisfy racial minorities. Can there be no end to the current insanity that would compel the mixing of races in social activities to achieve WHAT? You can name it yourself! The head of the NAACP here in WasHington, D. C. (where Negro criminal violence against white people is creating something akin to a reign of terror) said on a national television program in early May of this year, that Negro violence is coming and that the NAACP will promote the violence if whites do not immediately give the Negro what he demands. What does he demand. Does he honestly know just what he really wants? Whatever he may want will not come as a result of this or any other legislative act. You can be certain of that basic fact. The race problem can never be solved by passage of laws, court edicts, or by breaches of the peace. ONE ESTABLISHMENT GOES OUT OF BUSINESS I have said that the free enterprise system has contributed much to making our nation great and that many establishments would go out of business if they were required to integrate. I am prepared to give you one specific example in Mississippi. Mrs. Marjorie Staley of Winona, Mississippi, has operated a restaurant as a Continental Trailways Bus Terminal for quite a while. Apparently, she was making good and had a good business but she was told to either integrate or close the business. She chose to close her business rather than integrate. It is my understanding that Trailways officials had been directed by the Justice Department to warn her to either close or integrate. She has approximately $20,000.00 of equipment in the restaurant. She had seven or eight people employed -- three whites and three or four Negroes. She had a payroll of $2,000.00 per month, Now her business is closed, seven or eight people, Negroes and whites, are out of employment, and she has $20,000.00 worth of equipment on her hands. Prior to the time she closed this business, she served both white and colored in separate compartments -- one for the whites and one for the Negroes. Apparently, everyone was happy the way it was being operated. Everyone was well pleased--customers as well as employees, and Mrs. Staley. This is one example that neither Congress nor the courts can change attitudes and custors, Mrs. Staley is a widow and earned her livelihood operating her restaurant. There is a communist nation just 90 miles from our shores and yet, with this and all the other problems we face as a nation, the whole attention of the Congress and our nation at this critical era in history is diverted to this tragic and mis-named Civil Rights legislation. Perhaps this is all a part of a great conspiracy to divert our attention to this domestic issue so that we may neglect other and far more important matters. Gentlemen, I have done some research on this matter as to the constitutionality of the proposed bill. Section 3 of Senate Bill 1732 provides that all persons shall be entitled, without discrimination or segregation on account of race, color, religion, or national origin, to the full and equal enjoyment of the goods, services, facilities, privileges, advantages, and accommodations of hotels, motels and numerous other private business enterprises. Section 2(h) provides that alleged existing discriminatory practices "take on the character of action by the states and there- fore fall within the ambit of the equal protection of the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution of the United States." Section 2(i) takes the position that Congress has the right to enact this proposed legislation in order to remove alleged burdens on and obstructions to commerce under the Commerce Clause of the Constitution of the United States. Congress does not have the power to enact this legislati on under the Fourteenth Amendment The businesses sought to be controlled are purely private in character and as such fall within the ambit of what is commonly known as "free enterprise." Every loyal conservative American has a deep and abiding faith in our free enterprise system. He also stands ever vigilant to protect the citizen's right to own, control and operate his private business as he sees fit. The right to do business or to decline to do business with any individual is an inseparable part of said citizen's right to operate and control his privately owned business. If this right is destroyed by the Federal Government, the citizen has been deprived of one of his inalienable rights just as surely as though the Federal Government had con- fiscated his physical property. The Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution of the United States provides: alg "No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws." It should be noted that the Fourteenth Amendment is a pro- hibition against State action. It is not a prohibition against the action of one citizen against another. Each individual has a legal right to discriminate against another individual. Any control over such individual action by the operatior of a private business lies wholly within the power of the State legislatures under the Tenth Amendment to the Constitution of the United States. Some states have passed legislation similar to this; some have not. Each State has the right to make its own decision. Mississippi has taken no action on this question. In our State the owner of each business is free to make his own decision as to whom he will serve. Eighty years ago in United States v. Nichols, entitled the Civil Rights cases, 109 U.S. 3, 3 S.CT. 18, 27 L.Ed. 835, the Supreme Court of the United States held Sections 1 and 2 of the Civil Rights Act of 1875 unconstitutional. Said acts provided that all persons in the United States were entitled to the full and equal enjoyment of accommondations, advantages, facilities and privileges of inns and places of amusement. In holding that Congress had no right to pass such a law under the Fourteenth Amendment, the Court said: "It is state action of a particular character that is prohibited. Individual invasion of individual rights is not the subject-matter of the Amendment." In pointing out the reasons Congress had no such power and why such attempted legislation on the part of Congress was repugnant to the Tenth Amendment, the Supreme Court said: - 7 - "And so in the present case, until some state law has been passed or some state action through its officers or agents has been taken, adverse to the rights of citizens sought to be protected by the 14th Amendment, no legislation of the United States under said Amendment, nor any proceeding under such legislation, can be called into activity; for the prohibitions of the Amendment are against state laws and acts under state authority." * * © + "Such legislation cannot properly cover the whole domain of rights appertaining to life, liberty and property, defining them and providing for their vindication. That would be to establish a code of municipal law regulative of all private rights between man and man in society. It would be to make Congress take the place of the State Legislatures and to supersede them. It is absurd to affirm that, because the rights of life, liberty and property, which include all civil rights that men have, are, by the Amendment sought to be protected against invasion on the part of the State without due process of law, Congress may, therefore provide due process of law for their vindication in every case; and that, because the denial by a State to any persons, of the equal protection of the laws, is prohibited by the Amendment, therefore Congress may establish laws for their equal protection. In fine, the legislation which Congress is authorized to adopt in this behalf is not general legislation upon the rights of the citizen, but corrective legislation, that is, as may be necessary and proper for counteracting such laws as the States may adopt or enforce, and which, by the Amendment, they are prohibited from making or enforcing, or such acts and proceedings as the States may commit or take, and which, by the Amendment, they are prohibited from committing or taking." * 2% 2 & "An inspection of the law shows that it makes no reference whatever to any supposed or apprehended violation of the 14th Amendment on the part of the States. It is not predicated On any such view. It proceeds ex directo to declare that certain acts committed by individuals shalt be deemed offenses, and shall be prosecuted and punished by proceedings in the courts of the United States.” * & & € "In other words, it steps into the domain of local jurisprudence, and lays down rules for the conduct of individuals in society towards each other, and imposes sanctions for the enforcement of those rules, without referring in any manner to any supposed action of the State or its authorities. "Tf this legislation is appropriate for enforcing the prohibitions of the Amendment, it is difficult to see where it is to stop. Why may not Congress with equal show of authar ity enact a code of laws for the enforcement and vindication of all rights of life, liberty and property? If it is supposable that the States may deprive persons of life, liberty and property without due process of law, and the Amendment itself does suppose this, why should not Congress proceed at once £0 prescribe due process of law for the protection of every one of these fundamental rights, in every possible case, as well as to prescribe equal privileges in inns, public conveyances and theaters? The truth is, that the implication of a power to legislate in this manner is based upon the assumption that if the States are forbidden to legislate or act in a particular way on a particular subject, and power is conferred upon Congress to enforce the prohibition, this gives Congress power to legislate gen:.-ally upon that subject, - 9 - and not merely power to provide modes of redress against such state legislation or action, The assumption is certainly unsound. It is repugnant to the 10th Amendment of the Constitution, which declares that powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively or to the people." The Civil Rights Cases arose out of the denial by a hotel of its accommodations to persons of color and the denial by theaters of their accommodation to colored persons. In 1959 a Howard Johnson Restaurant denied service to Charles E. Williams, a colored attorney for the Internal Revenue Service. He brought suit claiming that such action violated the Civil Rights Acts of 1875 and the Commerce Clause of the Federal Constitution. In Williams v. Howard Johnson Restaurants, U.S.C.A.4th, 268 F.2d 845, the Court re-affirmed the doctrine of the Civil Rights Cases, and said: "Sections 1 and 2 of the Civil Rights Act of 1875, upon which the plaintiff's position is based in part, provided that all persons in the United States should be entitled to the full and equal enjoyment of accommodations, advantages, facilities and privileges of inns, public conveyances and places of amusement, and that any person who should violate this provision by denying to any citizen the full enjoyment of any of the enumerated accommodations, facilities or privileges should for every such offense forfeit and pay the sum of $500 to the person aggrieved. The Supreme Court of the United States, however, held in Civil Rights Cases 109 U.S. 3, 3 S.Ct. 18, 27 L.Ed. 835, that these sections of the Act were unconstitutional and were not authorized by either the Thirteenth or Fourteenth Amendments of the Constitution. The Court pointed out that the Fourteenth Amendment was prohibitory upon the states only, so as to invalidate all state statutes which abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States or deprive them of life, liberty or property without due process of law, or deny to any person the equal protection of the laws; but that the amendment did not invest Congress with power to legislate upon the actions of individuals, which are within the domain of state legislation." =i FG = From a legal point of view, it is perfectly clear that Congress does not have the power to control the activities of private business owners under the Fourteenth Amendment. Congress does not have the power to enact this legislation under the Commerce Clause of the Constitution of the United States. Article I, Section VIII, Clause 3 provides: "The Congress shall have Power: .. . to regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes; ..." No one can reasonably contend that the operation of a hotel, restaurant or drug store in Mississippi constitutes commerce among the several States. The Supreme Court of the United States Clearly did not think so in the Civil Rights Cases, because it said: "Has Congress constitutional power to make such a law? Of course, no one will contend that the power to pass it was contained in the Constitution before the adoption of the last three Amendments." The last three Amendments referred to were the 13th, 14th, and 15th. The Commerce Clause was a part of the Constitution from it inception. The Supreme Court, therefore, said that no one would even contend that Congress had the power to pass such law prior to the adoption of the 13th Amendment. Of course, the right to control commerce among the States includes the right to control interstate transportation, and Congress has done so in this field by Title 28 U.S.C.A., Section 3(1), which forbids a carrier to subject any person to undue or unreasonable prejudice or disadvantage in any respect. The right of the Congress to deny discrimination incident to interstate commerce has been upheld in a number of cases. Mitchell v. United States, 313 U.S. 80, 61 S.Ct. 873, 85 L.Ed. 1201; « UL Henderson v. United States, 339 U.S. 816, 70 S.Ct. 843, 94 L.Ed. 1302. In like manner, the Supreme Court has also held that certain State action constituted an unlawful burden on interstate commerce in this field. Morgan v. Virginia, 328 U.S. 373, 66 S.Ct. 1050, 90 L.Ed. 1317. In the Civil Rights Cases, the Supreme Court recm@gnized the power of Congress to regulate public conveyances passimg from one state to another, and said: "And whether Congress, in the exercise of its power to regulate commerce amongst the several States, migtht or might not pass a law regulating rights in public conveyances passing from one State to another, is also a question whicch is not now before us, as the sections in question are not conceived in any such view." It is clear, therefore, that the Supreme Court was not unmindful of the power of Congress under the Commerce Clause whem it decided the Civil Rights Cases and when it held that no one wowld even contend that Congress had the right to pass this type of legislation under the Commerce Clause or prior to the adoption of the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments. Who would seriously contend that the operation of 2 restaurant on Capitol Street in Jackson, Mississippi, could be classified as as commerce among the several States? If such action constitutes commerce among the States simply because some of the products handled were manufactured outside of Mississippi, every act of every citizen in every State could be controlled by Congress on the same basis. The Constitution should not be stretched entirely out @f shape in an effort to reach what is believed by some to be an evil, the correction of which is a matter for each State to make its own decision. This issue was raised in Williams v. Howard Johnson Restauramt, supra, and was held not to fall within the Commerce Clause of the Constitution. The Court said: "The plaintiff makes the additional contention based on the allegations that the defendant restaurant is engaged in / a | re interstate commerce because it is located beside an interstate | highway and serves interstate travelers. He suggests that a Federal policy has been developed in numerous decisions which requires the elimination of racial restrictions on transportation in interstate commerce and the admission of Negroes to railroad cars, sleeping cars and dining cars without discrimination as to color; and he argues that the commerce clause of the Constitution (Article 1, Section 8, Clause 3), which empowers Congress to regulate commerce among the states, is self-executing so that even without a prohibitory Statute no person engaged in interstate commerce may place undue restrictions upon it. "The cases upon which the plaintiff relies in each instance disclosed discriminatory action against persons of the colored race by carriers engeged in the transportation of passengers in interstate commerce," | "In every instance the conduct condemned was that of an | organization directly engaged in interstate commerce and the line of authority would be persuasive in the determination of } the present controversy if it could be said that the defendant restaurant was so engaged. We think, however, that the cases | cited are not applicable because we do not find that a restaurant is engaged in interstate commerce merely because in the course of its business of furnishing accommodations to the general | public it serves persons who are traveling from state to state. | As an instrument of local commerce, the restaurant is not subject to the constitutional and statutory provisions discussed above and, thus, is at liberty to deal with such persons as it may select." Neither the fact that some customers of an establishment may be travelling in interstate commerce nor the fact that some of the goods sold may have been purchased from outside the State constitutes commerce A subject to control by Congress. In Elizabeth Hospital, Inc. v. Richardson, y.S.C.A.8th, 269 F.2d 167, the Court held that the treatment of some patients who were travelling in interstate commerce did not destroy the purely local character of the services furnished by the hospital, and said: "The fact that some of plaintiff's patients might travel in interstate commerce does not alter the local character of plaintiff's hospital. If the converse were true, every country store’ that obtains its goods from or serves customers residing outside the state would be Selling in interstate commerce. Uniformly, the courts have held to the contrary. A.L.A. Schechter Poultry Corp. v. United States, 1935, 295 U.S. 495, 55 S. Ct. 837, 79 L.Ed. 1570; Lawson v. Woodmere, 4 Cir., 1954, 217 F.2d 148, 150; Jewel Tea Co. v. Williams, 10 Cir., 1941, 118 F.2d 202, 207; Lipson v. Socony-Vacuum Corp., 1 Cir., 1937, 87 F. 2d 265, 267, certiorari granted 300 U.S. 651, 57 S.Ct. 612, 81 L.Ed. 862 certiorari dismissed 301 U.S. 711, 57 S.Ct. 788, 81 L.Ed. 1364." Congress is now asked to control the operation of country stores and hotels on the theory that their operation constitutes commerce among the several States. The statement of the proposition is so ridiculous that it need not be further refuted. It is my understanding that the Attorney General of the United States has suggested to this Committee that it disregard the decision of the Supreme Court of the United States in the Civil Rights Cases. I have always been under the impression that it was the duty of the Attorney General of the United States to advise congressional committees as to the present status of the law. I do not believe he has the authority to recommend to you that you exercise, on behalf of the Federal Government, power which the Supreme Court has specifically held to be unconstitutional. oe In conclusion, I would like to ask certain members of the Congress two questions: (1) How long do you plan to bow to the unreasonable and unconstitutional demands of selfish minorities in your state? (2) When do you expect to begin to represent the great majority of your own people? Another question naturally follows--how far do you think the great white majority of this nation will stand to be pushed? I have received and am receiving daily letters from substantial everyday citizens in every state of this nation and I say to you seriously that our fine white citizens have stood just about as much of this minority insanity as they can take. Gentlemen, you are just about to hear from that great, silent, substantial white majority back home. When John Doe and Ole Joe Q. Doakes on Main Street in every city, town, yillage and cross-road in your state, finds out exactly what is really in this legislation--just what the present U.S. Attorney General and the Negro minorities want today--turmoil will really break loose in this nation. If you think 500,000 Negroes marching on Washington is something, pass this legislation and you'll find out what one hundred million angry white Americans will do. Please think deeply:anthese matters. Think seriously as to how much the white man will take in having his rights chipped away with new legislation such as this and by each decision of the Federal Courts. Are there no rights of the individual sacred today in this country? Equality in a social sense is attainable only in total slavery. Justice Brandeis said, "One of the inalienable rights of men is to be let alone." This certainly applies to the hard- working, small business man? Why should not the individual, who has worked to produce his own business, have the right to decide whom he will serve, whom he will associate with, and whom he will let on his premises? = 315 =
  • Tags: Box 17, Box 17 Folder 13, Folder topic: Civil Rights Bill | 1963
  • Record Created: April 18, 2017
  • Record Updated: April 30, 2021

Box 17, Folder 13, Document 23

http://allenarchive.iac.gatech.edu/originals/ahc_CAR_015_017_013_023.pdf
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  • Title: Box 17, Folder 13, Document 23
  • Text: WiLxtiam B. Srusss Trust Company or Groner Bur.pine ATLANTA 3, GEORGIA August 14, 1963 Dear Ivan: Rachael and I thought you might like to have a copy of Wireless Bulletin for Wednesday, August 7, 1963, which was published by USIS Press Section, Phnom Penh, Cambodia. USIS publishes twice a week, in three languages, a news bulletin distributed to papers and persons in Cambodia. Much of the material in the bulletin comes from USIA teletype. The bulletin has a circulation of about 5,000 in Cambodia. A copy of the August 7 issue is enclosed, in each of the three languages. Our son Bill is with USIS in Cambodia. He is extremely proud of Atlanta and has received many favorable comments from others. He does not have any responsibility for publishing the bulletin, but does handle its distribution. Cordial regards. Sincerely, W. B. Stubbs Mayor Ivan Allen, Jr. City Hall
  • Tags: Box 17, Box 17 Folder 13, Folder topic: Civil Rights Bill | 1963
  • Record Created: April 18, 2017
  • Record Updated: April 30, 2021

Box 17, Folder 13, Document 21

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  • Title: Box 17, Folder 13, Document 21
  • Text: Night Phones : Business Phones Midway 3-3736 738-2430 Midway 3-3962 CAnal 6-2646 BISHOP PRODUCE FRESH PRODUCE FOR PROCESSORS > FOOD BROKERS 4+/SOUTH WATER MARKET CHICAGO 8, ILLINOIS i JX, 19623 Deer Qe, - £2 Au Owe
  • Tags: Box 17, Box 17 Folder 13, Folder topic: Civil Rights Bill | 1963
  • Record Created: April 18, 2017
  • Record Updated: April 30, 2021

Box 17, Folder 13, Document 43

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  • Title: Box 17, Folder 13, Document 43
  • Text: August 19, 1963 Mr. Lamar Moore Moore and Moore P. O. Box 190 Moultrie, Georgia Dear Mr. Moore: This will acknowledge receipt of your letter of August 17th in which you enclosed a pamphlet prepared by the Virginia Commission on Constitutional Government dealing with the proposed Civil Rights Bill from Congress. I will be delighted to read this pamphlet and appreciate your sending it to me. ’ Sincerely yours, Ivan Allen, Jr. 1AJr/br SSS
  • Tags: Box 17, Box 17 Folder 13, Folder topic: Civil Rights Bill | 1963
  • Record Created: April 18, 2017
  • Record Updated: April 30, 2021

Box 17, Folder 13, Document 1

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  • Item Type: Text
  • Title: Box 17, Folder 13, Document 1
  • Text: givén his b OSs look This was the highlight of a Ken- nedy news conference Wednesday in which he applauded peaceful racial protests while decrying these which can lead to violence and bloodshed. THE SESSION with newsmen— Kennedy's first in Washington in 8 weeks—covered a wide range of topics including: —Business and taxes: The Pres- ident said business is better than expected, tax receipts consequent- ly have exceeded predictions and, as a result, last year’s budget defi- cit totaled $6.2 billion compared with a January forecast of $8.8 bil- lion. He said this bolsters his argument that a $10 billion tax cut would boost the economy still further and eventually balance the budget. —Cold war talks: Kennedy said he is “‘still hopeful” that the Unit- ed States, Britain and the Soviet Union ean achieve some kind of nuclear test ban treaty in the cur- rent Moscow talks, But he thinks talk of a possible summit meeting is premature, saying such a ses- sion is not “indicated or needed.” —Moon race: The chief execu- tive wants a continued effort to ‘put an American on the moon in this decade in order to show ‘‘the capacity to dominate space.” He treated as inconclusive British scientist Bernard Lovell’s report that the Russians may be losing interest in the moon race. trike: Kennedy again ailroads and operating e their work rules a threatened na- » July 29. He said d be ‘tmuch better Hings out themselves pon the govern- a strike comes, ill ask Congress tion, _ ABOUT civil scoffed at a claim . George C. Wal- demonstrations unist-Inspired. 0 evidence,”’ he of the leaders of s movements in the ; are Communists. evidence that the ilies are Commu- 4 y said those who com- out organized protests ig “do something about the grievances” that prompt them, He suggested it is illogical to say, on planned for the nati forward to being here,” is are Communist-in- think it is a conven-| gq. at to suggest that all ‘Don’t protest."sand at the same time assert, “We are not going to let you come into a store or a restaurant.” * He said he sees the situation as. “a two-way street.’ AS FOR THE Washington dem- onstration, scheduled for Aug, 28, Kennedy said it shapes up as “a peaceful assembly calling for a redress of grievances’ and under-. taken through cooperation with the police. a, Lat Kennedy said “this is not a march on the Capitol’’—something. he suggested earlier would harm the cause of civil rights advo- cates. In promising fo be in the capi- tal at the time, Kenn what amounted to a Congress by adding, members of Cong be here.” There has been son Tk that the legislators might Labor Day holiday - late August. bridge, Md., where tf said “They have of what the d on is about.” In such cases, he said, “I think the cause of advancing equal op- portunities only loses.” ON OTHER TOPICS, Kennedy said: —There is no need for more forma! diplomatic contacts with the Vatican because there is no lack of two-way communication at present. —He hopes South Viet Nam will resolve its religious disputes be- cause the military situation there looks more hopeful and a stable £overnment is needed. —A trip to the Far East is something the President would like to undertake but he expects to be busy enough at home for some months. —Red China seems bent on pro- moting nuclear war but Kennedy doubts the Soviet Union is anxious to face destruction by supplying ul ly coexisting with a S6Viet satel- lite, like Cuba, in the Caribbean. ‘The! Atlanta Chamber of Commerce has voted to Oppose President Kennedy's proposed civil rights pro- gram. In a resolution passed Wednes- day, the board of directors said the legislation would discourage voluntary desegregation of busi: nesses, The directors found “particular- ly objectionable” the public ac- commodations section of the Pres- ident's bill, which would require businesses to serve all customers without regard to race. “The bill is calculated to nar- row the role of voluntary action and to substitute the force of the federal government,”’ the resolu- tion said. ; This poses “a grave threat to local responsibility and personal freedom which far outweighs any possible improvement in the op- portunities of minority groups,” THE DIRECTORS of the 3,000- member chamber calle untary desegrega businesses in a statement, The May appeal to end diserimi- nation “as expeditiously as good Judgment will dictate” came af- ter a month of Negro demonstra- tions and arrests at Atlanta res- taurants. A number of restaurants have desegregated in the past month. fourteen hotels have agreed to. accept a limited number of Ne- groes. The board of d rs said its and voluntary eli crimination,” The resolution a meeting attended 27 directors. The vote nounced,
  • Tags: Box 17, Box 17 Folder 13, Folder topic: Civil Rights Bill | 1963
  • Record Created: April 18, 2017
  • Record Updated: April 30, 2021

Box 17, Folder 13, Document 3

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  • Item Type: Text
  • Title: Box 17, Folder 13, Document 3
  • Text: C. Wallac . Ge ties: The leaders of the Federal | Government have so misused the Negroes for selfish po- litical reasons that our entire concept of liberty and free- dom is now in peril. We daily see our Govern- ; diculous ex- military bases te 0 political purposes. Any orders should have his back- ground investigated. Refers to Purple Hearts The Air Force is encourag- | aging its personnel to engage in street demonstrations with rioting mobs and is even of- fering training credits as an inducement. Perhaps we will now see Purple Hearts award- ed for street brawling—here- tofore they were awarded on the field of combat. 'I note that by way of fur- ther intimidation, one of the President's committees has recommended that any busi- ness be placed off limits to military personnel unless they surrender to current Federal ideologies. real purpose of this ement to dis- 'a meeting ely reported last two end,” was elected president of the “Southern Conference Ed- ucational Fund" which is head- ‘quartered in New Orleans and active in seventeen Southern ‘states. ‘ Asks Bill’s Defeat This organization has been described by both the Senate Internal Security Subcommit- tee and the House Un-Amer- ican Activities Committee as an ‘organization “set wu (to promote Communism” | throughout the South. _ I come here today as an | American, as a Governor of @ sovereign state and as an individual with full respect for constitutional govern- ment. I appear to respectfully call upon the Congress of the United States to defeat in its entirety the Civil Rights Act of 1963. The President of the United States stated in his message accompanying Senate bill 1732 that enactment of the Civil Rights Act of 1963 at this session of Congress — however long it may take and however troublesome it may be — is imperative.” The President might well have further stated! “And however many people it hurts or businesses it destroys and regardless of the rights of the vast majority of our people.” In my judgment, the Pres- ident of the United States and the Attorney General of the United States, by design and political motivation, are sponsoring and fostering a complete and _ all-inclusive | concept | change in our whole of government and society— the Senate Commerce Commit- tee on the bill to prohibit racial discrimination in public facili- cer or official who issues such ie -“vever-_ Associated Press | Senator Warren G. Magnu- son, Washington Democrat, ‘who is conducting hearings ony civil rights legislation. yolution of government 1 against the people. mate Bill 1732—the so- d Public Accommodations : — would, together with the? President's full civil package, bring about government of the gov- ernment, by the government and for the government. The free and uncontrolled use of private property is the basic and historic concept of Anglo-Saxon jurisprudence. One of the primary reasons our forefathers came from Europe to carve this nation out of a raw and savage wil- derness was the purpose of using, controlling and enjoy- ing their private property and to pursue their chosen pro- fessions without fear of inter- ference from kings, tyrants, despots, and I might add, Presidents, Gentlemen, I'll tel] you what this Senate Bill 1732 does—it places upon all businessmen and professional people the yoke of involuntary servitude, —it should be designated as the “involuntary servitude act of 1963". The President, the Attorney General, and every member of this Congress who has sponsored this legislation stand indfeted before the American people. Scores Negroes, Tactics He [the Negro] no longer wants piers eau) treatment, © expects and apparently tends to bludgeon the ma ity of this country’s | into giving him prefere treatment. — ; He shows his sense of re- sponsibility by flouting la “and order a geaushout this country, even threatening to intimidate the Congress of the United States.And all of this is done with the tacit. approval of the sponsors of Senate Bill 1732. | A President who sponsors legislation such as the Civil Rights Act of 1963 should be retired from public life. And this goes for any Gov- ernor or other public official who has joined in this mad bloc vote, Does not the present situa- tion in Washington, D.C., give you some idea of the result you would obtain with this | legislation? The nation's cap- ital is supposed to be the supreme example of what eivil rights legislation can ac- complish. It's an example all right, an example of a city practically deserted by white people. If you in the Congress are really sincere about this civil rights business, why don’t you give home rule to the people of Washington? Let's see how the local residents ean run this city. I believe in local self gov- ernment. I challenge you to vote for home rule in Wash- ington, D.C. I suspect that if you attempted to do this, the Secretary of State would have to testify behind closed doors that this would result in dam- age to out image before the rest of the world, I think you gentlemen are avell aware of the reason you are having to consider Senate bill 1762. The President of he United States and the .ttorney General of the Uni- ted States have used the ent Adn led States and f of erjean people. . The Congress os the United . Notes President’s Talk The President so much as ‘admitted this in his nation- wide telecast which prefaced the introduction of this civil rights legislation, He wooed and won the minority bloc vote, Since then he has com- . mitted a series of blunders in trying to appease the mob leaders. — These leaders have now _ pressured the President into the ridiculous position of plac- , ing his stamp of approval on mob violence and rioting in the streets of this country. The entire handling of this racial situation by the pres- ninistration has shown an ineptness and total lack in handling political ef- hese votes, Frontier trife and of civil dministra- k jeopardy, | attempt = bill will y of the citizens of ry. When you detern at you will control an est private property rights—you invite chaos. If you intend to pass this bill, you should make prepara- tions to withdraw all our troops from Berlin, Viet Nam and the rest of the world be- eause they will be needed to police America. You are go- ing to make the American peo- ple law violators because they are not going to comply with this type legislation. No part of the Civil Rights Act of 1963 is acceptable and we people in the state of Ala- bama and the South will take | the lead for all freedom-lov- ing people of this country— black or white—in an all-out | effort to defeat any man who | supports any feature of the | civil rights package. The Executive branch of this Government has ignored the Constitution of the Unit- tered the ‘States is the last remaining bulwark against the destruc- tion of our system of govern- ment. ’ Asks Referendum I challenge the President and the Congress to submit this proposed legislation to the | people as a national referen- dum. I promise you that you will get the shock of your life be- ‘cause the people will over-— whelmingly reject this en- croachment upon their right | to own and enjoy private property. ; I say that it is high time freedom-loving people of this nation stand up and be count- ed and if the tree of liberty needs refreshing by the politi- cal blood of those who ig- nore the heritage established for us by the founding fathers, then so be it. ntlemen, I appreciate this opportunity to appear before | you today and before leaving I have a request I would like to make. I have charged here | today that there are Commu- | nist influences in the integra- tion movement. From the mountain of dence avail- able everyone should realize that they are true. You have heard these charges before you—You have seen the evi- dence— Why don't you do ‘something about it? Don't sweep this matter under the rug—let’s expose these ene- | mies.,.they are enemies of both black and white in this country—bring them out in) ‘the open.
  • Tags: Box 17, Box 17 Folder 13, Folder topic: Civil Rights Bill | 1963
  • Record Created: April 18, 2017
  • Record Updated: April 30, 2021

Box 17, Folder 13, Document 8

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  • Title: Box 17, Folder 13, Document 8
  • Text: Kenmedy, Held AlLOu rot est S For Open-Cate Law, | ad Red Ins President John F. Kennedy will push hard for his controversial public accommodations” legislation, the executive director of the outhern Regional Council said here Monday. Dr. Leslie W. Dunbar said this ras the impression he received at “recent White House onference vith Kennedy, Betw@gn 30 and 40 eaders of Givil 1 ions attende “{ went inte tnempecting not be- “more heavily on the Negro pro- portion of the population.” ieving the stration really thought they; pass public ac- | ~ s ) sommodations legislation,” Dun- nized the need for a “better guid- bar said, adding that President Kennedy and Vice President Lyn- don B. Johnson effectively “argued their sincerity in this.” Dunbar spoke at a dinner meet- ing of the Greater Atlanta Council on Human Relations, one of sev- eral Atlanta speakers to report on The Rev. Ralph Abernathy, At- lanta minister and an official of of the Southern Leadership Con- dis d ference, said that President Ken- puted claims that the Negro nedy ‘“‘did not seek to evade the inspired. issues’? at a meeting of religious eet leaders. before the Senate mittee on behalf of edy’s civil rights ihe recent series of White House ois : : conferenees on race relations. President Kennedy urged rell- prograllmthexecutive secretary of gious leaders to serve on bi-racial the National Association for » the From 25 to 30 Atlanta citizens committees in their own com. Advancement of Colored People were invited by the President to | munities, the Revs ebernethy said: aitend the special meetings. | said. ca | . ; .| The Rev. Vincefij} ime, who Dr. John W. Letson, superin-| otrended ce Bar, re tendent of Atlanta schools, said | @' ligious leaders, _there —_ — was almost “t of the public relations ¢ ‘to these meetings. There Teo many people for him (President Ken- nedy) really to talk to the people | there.” Void Inn Barxigrs. Rights Senatoniisks | WASHINGTON (p—Sen. Kenneth B. Keating, R-| N.Y., introduced Monday a civil rights amendment to outlaw all state and local ordinances compelling or fos- tering segregation in public accommodations. it was one of three amend- | proadest coverage of the bill is ment introduced by Keating to | to rely on both standards and this the Kennedy administration's civil|js exactly what my principal rights package. | amendment would accomplish,” : . Keating sald |) a Keating said in a Senate speech | Keatins Seas that the administration's public | - olne H on accommodations proposal relies | ve th - fe a primarily for enforcement on the |” ae ea a ‘oat ee interstaie eammerce clause in the | commodaHohs: : S spe i cifically mentioned in the Dill, Constitution. | | would be covered. He said Bs amendment would Nh 1 esas E make the pposal applicable to all stale local segregation ordinances ay basing enforcement on the J4th Amendment to the Con- stitution as well. That amendment | guarantees equal protection for all | ' eitizens. | ‘The ‘pest way to assure the | ance program.” Bef . Righ ts Heari: GTON—(UPI)—NAACP leader’ Roy 21 novia) ---fh— i Geis iy eI £ that school ‘‘drop-outs’’ pose a e e serious racial problem because ; me drop-outs and, later, the “impact : of unemployment,” fall much ays gw) 1-23 aS oe aid eae | NAAICP Sec Pp tary ‘Speaks protest movement is Communist “Wherein, is a 5 , pa ASUS Oy) a. gainst police bruta ainst di crimination in emp t, Sankt exclusion from voting booths, lunch einer and~ public es judged to un-Ameri or Buvenhiese er re In recent testimony before th eo ent p e coe inltLee, Govs. Ross Barnett of a ssissippi and George Wallace of abama charged that the mass | Negro. demonstrations .were fol- lowing a Communist pattern Wilkins also took issue with those who have said that Negroes were hurting their own cause by con- ished demonstrations; j f é commented: “How can a —which has been betrayed by ver possible device, beaten back in the crudest and most overt fashion, and distorted in high. sounding -misre- One ee by’ suave kinfolk of e mob-how can a cause in such condition be hurt by crying out of || those whgysuffer.. . 2” ot “the ‘committee’ that if er of oe oat D-Ga,, lead- eS oneal ce bloc ress, . swallow our treatment an Pe he would be on a picket line in the next follow- | “lack of 4 lish Parl t. ju day protest their ation in the ‘Mississip _ Carolina legislatures: nee the Negra) faq ued, “the resolute determin and action of our} thea citizens upon the civil rights Isle constitute exemplarly American at idtict “Tf we desire to kill off duct and to fashion & Nation of cautioug crawlers,” he said, “we should cease the teaching of Ameri- ean history.” ~
  • Tags: Box 17, Box 17 Folder 13, Folder topic: Civil Rights Bill | 1963
  • Record Created: April 18, 2017
  • Record Updated: April 30, 2021

Box 17, Folder 13, Document 5

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  • Title: Box 17, Folder 13, Document 5
  • Text: Bob Ken At States WASHINGTON (P—Atty. Gen. Tt Robert I", Kennedy told the Sen- ate Judiciary Committee that those who preach states’ rights are not “seeking the protection of the individual citizen, but his ex- pioitation.” In pleading Thursday before the Southern-dominated group for passage of the administration's civil rights program, Kennedy said: “The time is long past—if indeed it ever existed—when we should permit the noble concept of states’ rights to be betrayed and corrupted into a slogan to enial of American hts, and of hu- rights, of man rights! . THE MOSE i “the eommittee that passage of the controversial public accommodations part of »the program is essential. ‘Tt is the part whose prompt enactment will accomplish the most immediate good in stamping | out the fires of racial discord in our Jand,” he said. “Even as we sit here to) ’ day, National Guardsmen patrol _ the streets of Cambridge, Md., to prevent violence. Unrest is boil- ing in Savannah, Ga.; in Dan- ‘ville, Va., and in countless other “cities in the North as well as in “the South,” Kennedy said. : “This is what happens when long-standing legitimate griev- "ances are not remedied under jaw.” _ QUESTIONED RVIN . Under questioning by Sen. Sam‘ J. Ervin Jr., D-N.C., Kennedy said it is ‘not correct" to say the administration program was sub-, milted to Congress because, as Ervin put it, “we now are hav- ing troublesome times” with ra- cial demonstrations, The attorney general said the program was submitted ‘‘because there are injustices that should be remedied, not because demon- strations are taking place.” Ervin's questioning hardly had got under way when the Senate convened, forcing a recess in the hearing until.some time next weck. Ervin told Kennedy he was “not trying to filibuster’ but he said, “‘Some of us see this bill as a very drastic assault on the prin-| ciples of constitutional govern- ment and the private rights of individuals.” ‘“T understand,’”’ Kennedy said. rvin told n n he does not civil ri to ask many questions about, Er- vin said, is the one that would es- tablish a community relations service to help conciliate ra- cial disputes. However, Ervin said he would like to nole that: “The Civil Rights Commission agilates, the now there wo nity relations ate,” "
  • Tags: Box 17, Box 17 Folder 13, Folder topic: Civil Rights Bill | 1963
  • Record Created: April 18, 2017
  • Record Updated: April 30, 2021

Box 17, Folder 13, Document 13

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  • Title: Box 17, Folder 13, Document 13
  • Text: RIVIERA BEACH HIGH SCHOOL P. O. Box 10496 RIVIERA BEACH, FLORIDA CLYDE A. CANIPE Principal September 26, 1963 Honorable Mayor Ivan Allen City Hall Atlanta, Georgia Dear Sir, I am a Senior at Riviera Beach High School and am at present studying "Contemporary Problems", a course concerned with the problems facing our democracy today. Committees have been formed, each designated to study individual civil rights problems of several major cities, My particular group has chosen Atlanta and its surrounding area, The newspapers have reported favorably on Atlanta's handling of integration. Any of your views, any news clippings, any information concerning biracial committees, etc.,would be sincerely appreciated, Your cooperation is solicited, Sincerely, Janet Ellen Maglio Senior Riviera Beach High nls
  • Tags: Box 17, Box 17 Folder 13, Folder topic: Civil Rights Bill | 1963
  • Record Created: April 18, 2017
  • Record Updated: April 30, 2021

Box 17, Folder 13, Document 18

http://allenarchive.iac.gatech.edu/originals/ahc_CAR_015_017_013_018.pdf
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  • Title: Box 17, Folder 13, Document 18
  • Text: 140 No. 184th Seattle, Wash. 98135 August 16, 1963 Office of the Mayor Atlanta, Georgia Dear Mr. Mayor; The young people of the Church of the Brethren in the Pacific Coest Region are organizing a conference to be held at Squaw Valley, California on Nov. 21st. The theme for this conference is "Large Confusion —- Small Certainty". One of the topics for discussion will be civil rights. We would eppreciate any literature which your office could donate. Sincerely, Oe William Turnidge (Chairman in charge of Lit.). Bink FET
  • Tags: Box 17, Box 17 Folder 13, Folder topic: Civil Rights Bill | 1963
  • Record Created: April 18, 2017
  • Record Updated: April 30, 2021

Box 17, Folder 13, Document 45

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  • Title: Box 17, Folder 13, Document 45
  • Text: eS SS SS ae aT = == Se de SS EE ee ee IEEE October 25, 1963 Mr. William J. Johnson Department of Political Science Tulane University Box 1855 New Orleans 18, Louisiana Dear Mr. Johnson: Thank you for your inquiry about how Atlanta handles race relations, I believe the attached testimony which the Mayor made before the Senate Commerce Committee is the best summary which we could furnish you. Sincerely yours, Ivan Allen, Jr., _ Mayor IAJr/br a 7
  • Tags: Box 17, Box 17 Folder 13, Folder topic: Civil Rights Bill | 1963
  • Record Created: April 18, 2017
  • Record Updated: April 30, 2021

Box 17, Folder 13, Document 10

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  • Title: Box 17, Folder 13, Document 10
  • Text:
  • Tags: Box 17, Box 17 Folder 13, Folder topic: Civil Rights Bill | 1963
  • Record Created: April 18, 2017
  • Record Updated: April 30, 2021

Box 17, Folder 13, Complete Folder

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  • Title: Box 17, Folder 13, Complete Folder
  • Text: W II GTON, July 18 ( giv n his blessi ngs to the ]at : str ·on planned f~r the !1~~ look forward to bemg here. This was the hi ghlight of a Kennedy news conference Wednesday in which he app lau?ed peace_ful racial protests while decrym., those which can lead to violence and bloodshed. THE SESSION with newsmen-:Ken nedy's firs t in Washmgton m 8 weeks- covered a wide range of topics including : -Business and taxes: The President said business is better than e}..1)ected, tax receipts consequently have exceeded pred1ct1ons a nd, as a result, last year's budget deficit totaled $6. 2 billion compared with a J anuary fo recast of $8.8 billion He sa id thi s bolsters his qrg~ ment that a $10 billion tax cut would boost U1e eco nomy sti ll further and eventually balance the . budget. -Cold war tal ks: Kennedy a_1d be is "still hopeful" u, at the Un_1ted Slates, Britain and the _Soviet Union can achieve some kind of nuclear lesl ban treaty in the current Moscow talks. But . he lh1~ks talk of a possibl e summit meet111g is prem ature, saying such a se~; sion is not " indicated oi~ needed. - Moon race : The chief executive wants a continued effort ~o put an America!'\ on the moo~ m this decade in order to show the capacity to dominate _space.". !le treated as inconclusive Br1t1sh scientist Bernard Lovell's report that the Ru ssians may be loSmg interest in the moon race. - Rail strike: Kennedy again urged the railroads and operating unions. to ettle their work rules dispu te before a threa tened nationwide strike Ju ly 29. He sa id bot.h sides \\oul d be " much better off" to work things out themselves "and not depend upon the government to do . If a stnke comes, Kennedy said ile will ask Congress to end il bf legislation. IN T AL ·r. ABOUT c iv i I rights, Kelllll1'!ii scoffed at a claim by Alabama Gov. George C. \:Vallace that racial demonstrat10ns have been Communist-inspired. "We m e no evidence," he said, "I.hat any of the leaders of civ· r1 h movements in the a re Commun ists. evidence that the s are Communist.in. I think it is a con vent to suggest that all • 11... _, 1ties are CommuY said those who complam about orga nized protests shou "do something about the grievances" tha t prompt them . He s uggested it is illogical to say, "Don' t protest," and at th e _same time assert, "We are not gomg to let you come into a store or a resta urant." He said he sees the situation as "a two-way s tree t. " AS F OR THE Washington demonstration, scheduled for Aug. ~~, Kennedy aid it shapes up as a peaceful asse mbly calling for a redress of gri evances" and tmd~rtaken through cooperation with tqe police. Kennedy said "this is not _ a march on th e Capitol" -somethmg.. he suggested ea rli er would ha rm the cause of civil r ights advocates. . In prom isi ng to be in th e capital at the tim e, Kennedy added wha t a mounted to a challenge to Congress by adding, "I 8n:i sure mem bers of Congress will be here. There has been some talk th a t the legislators might take ~ long Labor Day holiday - starling m late August. Kennedy contr as ted the planned Washingto n demons tion with at ·Camthose now in progr bridge, Md., where th e has.been rioting and bloodshed. Speaking of C a m said : sight " They have almos of wha t the demon ation is about." . In such cases, he said, "I think the cause of advancing equal opportunities only loses." ON OTHER TOPICS, Kennedy said: - There is no need fo r more form al diploma tic contac ts with the Vatican bec,use th ere is no lack of two-way comm un ica tion at prese nt. -He hopes Sou th Viet Na m will resolve its religious disputes beca use the military situa tion there looks more hopeful and a stable government is needed. , .. -A trip to the Far East 1s something the President would li ke to undertak e but he expects to be busy enough a t home fo r some months. -Red China seems bent on promoting nuclear wa r but Kennedy doubts the Soviet Un.ion is anxi ous to face des truction by supplying the weapons th at would be needed. - The United States condemns the raci al policy of the Republic of South Afr ica but doesn't believ in expelling countries from the United Nations. -There is no of peacefully coexisting with a oviet satellite, like Cuba, in the Caribbe an. nesses. The directors fou nd " part icular ly objectionable" the public accommodations section of the President's bill, which wou ld r equi re businesses to serve all customers withou t r egard to r ace. " The bill is calculated to narr ow the role of voluntary action a nd to substitute the for ce of the federa l government," the resolution said . This poses "a grave threa t to local r esponsibility and personal freedo m whi ch fa r ou tweighs any possible improvement in the opportun ities o( minority groups." THE DffiECTORS of the 3,000m ember chamber ca!Jed for volunta ry desegregation of Atlanta b1,1sinesses in a May 29 policy sta tement. Bu t they , ~ phasized they were not "trym ~fu ;!~II any proprietor how he shO\lld' conduct his business." The May appea l to encl discri mina tion "as expeditiously as good judgm ent will dictate" came after a month of Negro demonstrations a nd arrests a t Atlan ta restaurants. A number of res taura nts have desegregated in the pas t month . · Fourteen hotels h2ve agreed to accept a limi ted num ber of Negroes . The boa rd of directors said its resolution opposing the President's legislation is " consistent with its earlier stand for local and volunta ry elimination of discrimina ti on. " The resolu tion was adopte " on t he books Rince states righ ts. a grant, contract, loan, in11uranther eof, N in the his tory of 188, prh·ate prnperty this Amendnt valid part of free m ......_......,..,.e women has a ce, guar anty or otherwtae. No I i:tatute. blueprlf eral dictatorsuch law shall be interpreted ubli<' ac·t·nmmo- ~ ship moM ingly been conof the Admini. - 1 ~ aa r equiring that 11uch financial right. package, trived, ' a1111istance shall be fllmiahed try to t ell priYutc "I fNI that if die American in clrcumstan MMl,r which 11 r, 1 11n 1,11 1 , ,I 111 11 , ·11, l1 tl ,11 •1or,· r11 111111 / , ·.r 11111.'11 1 I peo9l• alized t w11 inIndividuals pardc tinJ in or this program they Hm or volvec1 benefiting fr activity are d d a• up and 11trUce do~ ese iniqultou progainst on the e r ecited onl)> e, color, religion 1 origin or are denied participation but l!IIIIIIIIWlilf'e several prevlaions or benefits therein on the ground of thil itct that are equally as extreme, and I shall discuss them in the future," I ern; 0 - �Excerpt s~ •eta I to The N• Tutt '1'flill WASHINGTON, Jt'1'1/ 15 Foll.owing are e3:csrpfa t1&e testimony t oday by aou. M'fltl O. Wallace of Alabama before the Senate Commerce Conimi ttte on the bill to prohibit racial discrimination in public facilitie&: The leaders of the Federal Government have so misused the Negroes for selfish political reasons that our entire concept of liberty a.nd freedom is now in peril. We daily see our Government go to ridiculous extremes and take unheard-of actions to appease the minority bloc vote leaders of this country. I was a p ~ and a.ma.zed to read of t statement by Pentag~ cials relative to proposed rights investigations Qn military install&tlons. e was a. time when mili Installations in accordwere estab requirements ance with ' of the nation defense posture. Today these fficials use the threat of thdra.wal of military bases to accompl sh political purposes. Any officer or official who issues such orders should have his background investigated. Refers to Purple Hearts The Air Force is encourag~ging its personnel to engage m street demonstrations with rioting mobs and is even offering training credits as an inducement. Perhaps we will now see Purple Hearts awarded for street brawling-heretofore they were awarded on the field of combat. I note that by way of further intimidation, one of the President's committees has recommended that any business be placed off limits to military personnel unless they surrender to current Federal ideologies. Is the real purj'ose of this integration movement to disarm this country as the Communists have planned? I personally repent the actions of the Fed I Government which ha.v ated these ya! Americonditions. As I Southern can and as a. I Governor, who never belated with longed to or any subversh,e ment, I resent the f&,W llllllll":liUld pawing . over I\ICII as Martin Luther g s pro-Comassociates. munist f nd Last • [Ross D.] Barnett.J ssissippi] ttee a. picshowed ture of tber King and a. Communist a meeting leaders toge ly reported in tn P:!!111',1,n·~ he last two months, top lieutenant in Alabama, Fred L. Shuttlesworth, a self-styled "reverend," was elected president of the "Southern Conference Educational Fund" which is headquartered In New Orleans a.nd active in seventeen Southern states. A&ks Bill's Defeat This organization has been described by both the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee and the House Un-American Activities Committee as an organization "set up to promote Communism throughout the South. I come here today as an American, as a Governor of a sovereign state and as an individual with full respect for constitutional government. I appear to respectfully ca.II upon the Congress of the United States to defeat in its entirety the Civil Rights Act of 1963. The President of the United States stated in his message accompanying Senate bill 1732 that enactment of the Civil Rights Act of 1963 a.t this session of Congress however long It may take and however troublesome it may be - Is Imperative." The President might well have further stated: "And however many people it hurts or businesses it destroys and regardless of the eights of the vast majority of our people." In my judgment, the President of the United States and the Attorney General of the United States, by design and political motivation, are sponsoring and fostering a complete and all-Inclusive change In our whole concept of government and society- The President so much 1u1 admitted this In his nationwide telecast .which prefaced .t he Introduction of this civil rights legislation. He wooed and ..von the minority· bloc vote. Since then he has committed a. series of blunders in trying to appease the mob leaders. These leaders have now . pressured the President Into the ridiculous position of placing his stamp ·of approval on mob violence and rioting in the streets of this country. The entire handling of this racial situation by the present Ad'm inistration has shown an ineptness and total lack of understan g in handling Assocl&t•d P.r'5s bich have been Senator Warren G. Magnu- the prob e political efson, Washington Democrat, created to these votes. who is conducting hearings forts ·The pr w Frontier 0111 civil rights legislation. is a na.ti strife and turmoil of civil a revolution of goven1ment warfa The against the people. tion i ena.te Bili 1732-the so- and in c ed Public Accommodations to reco es of polis shifted Bill - would, together with tical prestfj;e. It ti\ President's full civil the burdliat oll i dl oss misriglits package, bring about takes i~itldeltelllidll! the Congress of the Uni ed Statesgovernment of the gov- all the .1t..vtilei t: ing to a ch shows ernment, by the government lawless nNIWt utter disregar nd contempt and for the government. The free and uncontrolled for law remedy use of private property is the This b1l basic and historic concept of the situation. Ttrts bill will Anglo - Saxon jurisprudence. inflame the majori,t,y of, the One of the primary reas ons citizens o ~ · y. When i:. you will our forefathers came from you dete private Europe to carve this nation control an Be out of a raw and savage wil- property rights-you invite derness was the purpose of chaos. If you intend to pass this using, controlling and enjoying their private property and bill, you should make prep;trato pursue their chosen pro- tions to withdraw all our fessions without fear of inter- troops from Berlin, Viet Nam ference from kings, tyrants, and the rest of the world bedespots, and I might add, ca.use they will be needed to Presidents. police America. You are goGentlemen, I'll te]J you what ing to make the American peothis Senate Bill 173:>. does,-it pie law violators because they places upon all businessmen are not going to comply with and professional people the this type legislation. No part of the Civil Rights yoke of involuntary servitude, ~it should be designated as Act of 1963 is acceptable and the "involuntary servitude act we people in the state of Ala.of 1963". ha.ma and the South will take The President, the Attorney the lead for all freedom-lovGeneral, and every member ing people of this countryof this Congress who has , black or white-in an all-out sponsored this legislation stand effort to defeat any man who indfcted before the American supports any feature of the people. · civil rights package. r -The Executive branch of Score!l Negroes, Tactics this Government has ignored He [the Negro] no longer the Constitution of the Unitwants mere equal treatment, ed States and fostered the he expects and apparently in- march toward eut?W\~ation tends to bludgeon the major- and the ultimate ~ ction lty of this country's citizens of our system. i, into giving him preferential Tile judicial bran treatment. verted the Constit He shows his sense of re- United States i sponslbility by flouting law which shocks the nscience and order throughout this of the American people. country, even th1·eatenlng to The Congress of the United intimidate the Congress of States is the las t rem aining the United States.· And all of bulwark against the destructhis is done with the tacit tlon of our system of governapproval of the sponsors of ment. Asks Referendum Senate Bill 1732. A President who sponsors legislation such as the Civil I challen.ge the President Rights Act of 1963 should and the Congress to submit be retired from public life. this· proposed·legislation to the And this goes for any Gov- people as a national referenernor or other public official dum. I promise you that you will who has joined in this mad bloc vote. get the shoclt of your life beDoes not the present sltua- · cause the people will overtlon In Washington, D.C., give whehnlngly reject this enyou some idea, of th~ result croachment upon their right you would obtain with this to own and enjoy private legislation? The nation's cap- property. ital is supposed to be the I say tha,t It is high time supreme example of what freedom-loving people of this civil rights legislation can ac- nation stand up and be countcomplish. It's an example a.It ed and if the tree of liberty r~ght, an example of a city needs refreshing by the politipra.ctlcally deserted by white cal blood of those who igpeople. If you in the Congress nore the heritage establishecl are really sincere about this for us qy tl_1e founding fathers, civll rights business, why don't then so be 1t. . you give home rule to the G~tlemen, I appreciate this people of Washington? Let's opportunity to appear before see how the local residents you today a.nd before leaving I have a. request I would like can run this city. I believe In local self gov- to make. I have charged here ernment. I challenge you to today that there a.re Commuvote for home rule in Wash- nist Influences in the lntegra.lngton, D.C. I suspect that If tlon movement. From t11e you attempted to do this, the mountain of evidence availSecretary of State would have able everyone should realize to testify behind closed doors that they are true. You hav.e t hat this would result In dam- heard these charges before age to our Image before the you-You have seen the evlrest of the world. dence - Why don't you do I thlnlt you gentlemen a.re something a.bout it ? Don't well a.ware of the reason you sweep this matter under the are having to consider Senate rug-Jet's expose these enf)bill 1.732. The President of mies ... they are enemies of the United States arid the both black and white fn this Attorney Genera.I of the Uni- country-bring them out in ted States have used the the open. ·-"'""1- i:int I �A /,ul tat e tr s all over A rtca to oroe it. Th e law-abidpeople of the SOtlt ing-th ey abide by I.he la,w as t h e'.Y see it .. . but tr u tel1 t h ey ople h ave got to associate wlt th ey don't . wan t t o assoc! with , Sen. Talm~.. Speaks Again .R.ights.Bn s Pf Cloal,was nC) t they Ls with vie terror ,"'2. It would r equire !oroe Q enforce." T alm adge also said it is doubLful that action can be completed t his year on a tax reduction bill. He sa id t h e civil rights Negroes . m Mon tgomery and none in_ Danville, where racial demonstrations have occurred. DOGS WELCOME "But a dog, provided he is tra veling with a white man, is welco!l1e to ST'end the nigh t in at least five establishments In !Montgomery and four in Danville, Kennedy asserted. This was the attorney general's third appearance before a. congres1bH!ffiY - a bedesegregation. He also recom- lief in the dignity and worth mended that a provision estab- of each person?" 1j1.o . -tn~ Lette c:forCoope ation With Biracia Panels and Effort to Cut .Drop-Outs By The Associated Pre•• WASHINGTON, July 19 _ President Kennedy has sent a personal appeal to the presidents of thousands of school boards across the country for "your help in solving the grave civil rights problems faced by this nation." Let ters over Mr. Kennedy's signature were mailed last July 2. They also asked for cooP.eration in a nationwide effor t fthis summer to persuade y oung people to return. to school in September and uee the number of drop-outs. Mr. Kennq urged, school board presid to work active- . ly with b" eommlssions to solve civil 11ghts Issue~. and to press ,f or ~eatlon of such commissions Where there were none. In more general terms the resident voiced t)le hope' tha t they would "discuss this letter th your colJeWes and if possible enlist thelr..mpport ." Asks by Aug. 15 the -,po Turning to the problem of drop-outs, the--J)resident went on : "I urge y to commepce to intensify yo fort immediately in mee this nation problem; and gest tha t yo advise Co oner [ F rancis) Keppel of the Uhited States Office of Educatiob of your pr ogress--I would hope there could be an initial report by Aug. 15 and again by the end of September outlining the progress you have been able achieve. "Whether there is a significant reduction in drop-outs when schools resume in the fall will depend, in great measure, on your efforts in your owrt community. We solicit your' sympathetic support and assistance." Mr. t:rn1'" . emp prob! rights use' bf a diinishmg market for untrained workers Blld the high propor ion of unemployed Negroes. But he told the school board executives that the problem afected both white and Negro tudents. "It is of particular signiflance," Mr. Kennedy said, "because of a lack of job opportunities for inadequately trained , Continued on Page 9, Column 2 1 . 1 �Protest pe -Ce butt by crying out of those w suffe~ • ?" He the tnittee that if Ben. 'RI , D-Oa., leader of the- aou ~ pposltion bloc· •• sw;i.llav,r our , In Cong t r.ea.t mentl llll'lil!IM , Jie would be on a pictet llDe Ill ne.zt following 20 " 'Whe1na;1111t,111819U1 upon or said, "tn rective action." fore t he Senate lttee on behalf of edy's ci,vil rights xecutive secret,a.r y of ·:Association for t he of Colored !People '---~-= ~~- ~. . . . . "Th P.V he u1ivil rights . b11I. JBJ1 Mr. · Kennedy used the Southerners, in ldftt:t, of forgetting the debates in the Constitutional Convention and mispplying their favorite doctrine. He said: "States' rights, as our forefathers conceived it, was a protection of the right of the individual citizen. Those who preach. most frequently about States Rights toda.i are not those seekini th~ J)l'Otection of the indivfaual citfzt!Jl, but his exploitation. "'The time is long past - i indeed it ever existed- when w ontfnuecton Page 7,Column 2 i • ...., �ITOB ·RIGHTS PLAN tJ rnups and the unions in a posl1ve way. . A National L abor Service spo~ esm3:n,. info rm ed of the r e, , , , , , act10n, said . ill1 "We're sorry th ey're so hy, persensitive. Our purpose was Pro osals to End Race Bars completely fr iendly and deP signed to br idge the ga p beTe rmed' Presum pti ous tween la bor and the Negro and t,; ~ ~ 1 •1 ,\Y civil rig hts g roups. We feel it /Vil~ i'j, ... \ is extremely important bot h .for By JOHN D. POMF R i T the civil rights movement and Special to The New York Tlmta ' fo r the sake of legislation in WASHINGTON, July other · Ids to have broadly IRKS AFL-C·IO \(l y ." . 0 gr~ups active in th T e oposals were m a iled to 1ghts field today sent to e presidents of the A.F .L.of the na tion's int erna tional C.I.O .'s 130 affili a ted unions. union presidents a set of sweep- They went also to the federaing proposals for uni on a ction to end r acia l discrimination. The proposals evoked a host ile r eac tion from a spokesman for the American Federation of La bor and Congress of Industrial Organizations. While saying that he felt the proposa ls were well-meaning, he cha racterized them. as pre sumptuous. He indicated that! he was ncerned that union lea ders w 1d regard th em a ctic, and that this a pr ess1,1r unfavora re ion later would be ted n res!stanc the federation t o wh itself opose to its affiliates civil rights field J' Proposals " An at the A.F.L. in t his area wi l1 C.I.O. be in these proposa ls~ not b of them," th spokes . "W have go to look prob! ~ from a, oint o view and trade u de un n way to move in solve t h T he 1 oposals were circulated by the P otomac Ins titute, a private, nonprofit agency working for improved Intergroup relations, and th e National L abor Service of the American J ewish Committee. They emerged !}'om a n "off. the-recor d" meeting h eld at t he institute here J une 10. About 25 persons active in civil rights work in unions, intergroup relations experts and repres41ntaUves of Negro organizationls llttended. nee Is Olted ht of t he t wo sponps was t hl,t. the '1liance b the N egro had ly strain n unions ecrctary ciation of C o t r an fi411d The s ot s demonstrations union discrim ina rly in the bu ding ades ould increase in frequen cy They fel t it vi tal t o t ry to hea the breach between the Negro t!_on ?~elf, to union civil rights spec1ailsts, key Negro leaders, a number ci'f government officials active in th e civil ri_ghts field and the l eaders of mtergroup or ganizations. Calle!1 Suggestions Titled "P roposals fo r Civil Rights Action by Organized La bor ," the .. 16 suggestions all were made by participants at the June 16 meeting . Not every par ticipant end orsed each proposal a nd, in fac t , some of the s.uggestions were vigorously opposed by a number of those who a ttended. Nor were the . p_ropcisals in any sense the off1c1al program of the sponsoring' or~anj,zatio_ns, a spokesman explained~ T)l$ were sent o_ut in the hope th,{ they would be useful to· unio~ in -planning their activities · th · ·1 • ht f ' Id e civi r~g s ie ·. ,: The main suggestion was th~ the federa tion should establi~ immediately a special task fox~ of ranking officers and sta,£f r epresenta tives to set up •.<~ broad crash program"' to de with all aspects of civil right$ Task forces on the state a.iyl local level_s were also recom; mended and international unions were asked to ma~~ h_ig_h-l~vel as?ignments in t~ c1v1I ri ghts field. ·· - �ARTHURJ. GOLDBERG Confirmed September 25, 1962 by voice vote Senator Thurman of South Carolina asked to be recorded as voting against him BYRON S. WHITE Confirmed April 11, 1962 by voice vote In a speech, Senator Russell said he was for his confirmation (See page 5835, Congressional Record) HUGO BLACK Confirmed August 17, 1937 Senator Russell was 11 paired 11 for confirmation - he did not vote WILLIAM O. DOUGLAS Confirmed April 4 , 1939 Russ e ll voted yes TOM C . CLARK Confi rme d A u g us t 18 , 1949 Russell vot e d y e s JOHN M. HARLAN Confirme d M arch 16, 1955 Russ ell v oted no �September 30, 1963 Miss Janet Ellen Maglio Riviera Beach High School P. O. Box 10496 Riviera Beach, Florida Dear Miss Maglio: In reply to your letter of September 26th I am enclosing a copy of the testimony given by Mayor Allen before the Senate Commerce Committee. The City of Atlanta bas not established one large hU1'11an rights commission as you will see from reading the testimony. We have, however, appointed affected bi-racial committees to work out specific problems. With appreciation for your inquiry, I am Sincerely yours, Ann Drun1mond, Executive Secretary AD/br Enclo u-re �RIVIERA BEACH HIGH SCHOOL P. 0. Box 10496 RIVIERA BEACH, FLORIDA CLYOE A. CANIPE Principal Septemb er 26 , 1963 Hon oFable Mayor I van_ Allen City Hall Atl anta, Ge o rgi a Dear Sir, I am a SenioF ~t Riviera Bach High School and mat present studying " Contemporary Problems" , a course concerned with tho p robl ems f a cing our democ 1nacy today• Commi ttee s have b e en f ormed, a ch design a t ed to study individua l civil rig hts problems of several ma jor cities. My particular g roup has chosen Atl ant a its s urrounding re. nd The newspapers h~vc r po rted favorqbly on Atl nta ' s handling o integFation. Any o f your views , any news clippings , ny inform tion concerning b1ra ci 1 committ ees , etc .,would be sincerely appre cicted . Your cooperation is solicit d . Sincerely, f:::::~M ~~ S nior Rivier ml Bach High �September 30, 1963 Mr . Samuel Levine, Legislative Chairman Committee for Human Rights City of Fremont 41634 Covington Drive Fremont, California Dear Mr. Levine: In reply to your letter of September 25th I am enclosing a copy of the testimony given by Mayor A llen before the Senate Commerce Committee . The City of Atlanta has not established one large human rights com.mission as you will see from reading the testimony. We have, however, appointed affected bi-racial committees to work out specific problems. With appreciation for your inquiry, I am Sincerely yours, Ann Drwnmond, Executive Secretary AD/br Enclo ure J �41634 Covington Drive Fremont 9 California September 25, 1963 Office of Mayor of Atlanta Atlanta, Georgia Sir: The citizens of the City of Fremont are urging the formation of a Human Rights Commission. In order to establish the best possible organization, it was recommended that we consider a pattern similar to the one which now serves your city. To this end we request that you be kind enough to send, at your earliest convenience, a copy of the ordinance which establishes and describes the Human Rights Commission of your city. We assure you that this material will be used judiciously. May we take this opportunity to congratulate you f or your excellent work in this area. Most p mel:, / , 143.215.248.55 Legislat ive Chairman Committee for Human Rights City of Fremont �Septembe r 2 3, 1963 Hon. Eleauor P . Sheppard, Mayor City of Richmond Richmond 19, Virginia Dear Mayor Sheppard: In the absence of Mayor Allen, I would like tor ply to your letter of Se·p tember 20th. There is very little information written down regarding bi-racial committees in the City of Atlanta . I am enclosing a copy of Mayor Allen's te timony before the Senate Commerce Committee which tells in a general way what has taken place in Atlanta. As you will note from reading it, we have not appointed one large bi-racial Committee but w have appointed such committees to work Gd.th. specific problems. Should you have any further questions,. we will be glad to try to answer them. Sincerely yours, A nn Drunimond, E xecutiv Secretary AD /br Encl osur �a[Jf:U af lti:dttttultu ~ ELEANOR P . SHEPPARD M AYO R RICHMOND 19 , VIRGINIA Sep t ember 20, 1963 The Honorable Ivan Allen, Jr . Mayor of Atlanta Atlanta , Georgia Dear Mayor Allen: The City of Richmond has recently appointed a bi-racial cormnission to seek solutions to cormnunity problems. The cormnission has expressed an interest in materials and experiences of similar cormnissions in other cities of the South, and asked me to request either printed, mimeographed or any publications known to your city and available for our information. I will appreciate your consideration personally and most gratefully. Sincerely, iluvwn ~-~ Eleanor P. Sheppard Mayor EPS:ALB �140 No. 184th Seattle, Wash. 98133 August 1 6, 1963 Office of the Mayor Atl an t a , Georgi a Dear Mr. Mayor; The young peo ple of the Church of the Brethren in the Pacific Co s t Region are organi zi ng a conf erence to be held at Squ aw Valley, Californi a on Nov. 21st. The t heme for this conference is "La r ge Confus ion Small Cer tainty ". One of the t opics for dis cussion will be civi l ri ghts . We would appr eci a te any lit er ture whi c h your offic e coul d dona t e. Sincerely , w~. · vv? William Turnidge (Cha irm n in cha r ge of Lit.). �August 19, 1963 Mr. Quintus E. Fredrickson 40 Downer Place Aurora, Illinois Dear Mr. Fredrickson: This will acknowledge receipt of your letter of August 16. I am grateful for the kind things you bad to say about me. I am enclosing a copy of m.y testimony presented recently before the Senate Commerce Committee in Washington. This is just about as complete in.formation as I can furnish you. It will give you an idea of how Atlanta has been able to cope with the problem of racial discrimination. Congratulations on your new stol'e. I certainly wish for you every success. W:ttb best wishes and highest personal regards, l am Sincerely yours, q JAJr/eo E nclo \U" Ivan Allen, Jr., Mayor �40 DOWNER PLACE AURORA, ILLINOIS PHONE TWIN OAKS 7-4675 OFFICE SUPPLIES A ND EQUIPMENT August 16, 1963 Mayor I van Al len, Jr . City Hal l Building Atlanta, Georgia Dear Mayor Allen : Many mont hs ago I wanted t o sit down and wr 'te a letter of congrat ulations t o you for having een elect ed Ma or of Atlanta, but one . ut s t hings off . Then as the months we nt b pro bl ems have been brought to mind by the i ntegr a1:ion movements a nd I have wanted to writ e a letter of congratulation beca us e of the graciou s acce" t ance evident l y accorded all peoples in the c i t of Atla nta . Then I thought that thi s could on l y be due to good leadershi . I kne w i t mus t be th is because t hat is wha t you gave to the N.9. 0 . E. A. and t he offic e su pl y industry in the vears ast , but again I fai l ed to wr i t e this c ongrat ulatory lett er , But today I find myself in a s omewhat simila r os · tion to ,ours , with the problems of i ntegration thru s t u pon me and ot her s as members of the Aurora Area Bi- Racial Committee . I was also an elected offi cial in 1941, ha vi ng been Cit y Clerk until the out break of World War II when I enlis ted and we nt into the Infantry . I had Negro soldiers at Anni s t an , Alabama , before going overseas with the Seventh Armored Divi sion . Also, rior t o World War I I , I had worked with Negro gang gr ou ps through the public s c hool system and the Y, M. C . A. her e in Aurora . With t hi s bit of background I was chosen to become a member of the Bi - Ra cial Comm i ttee, an appointment whi ch I fe lt no one should turn down if he felt c apabl e of dealing with this .most current emergency , Ivan, if you should have any materials which you feel would be advantageou s for me to use I ould appreciate your forwarding them to me . Any s uggestion s that you have I likewjse would be thankf ul f or, We have had meetings with the Civil Serv i c e Commiss i on here, the retail divi s ion of the Chamber of Commerce a nd the personnel officer s of our loc a l a rea manufacturing. Meeti ngs are scheduled with the school boar ds , the banks and building and loan associations for next week , a nd t he r ealtors week after next, There are four Whites and four Hegroes on t he Commission, all of whom are l evel-headed . �Mayor I va n Alle n t Jr. Augus t 16, 1963 Page - 2I hav e j u s t mov ed i nt o a ne w l oc a tion a nd had my Gr a nd Opening t wo weeks ago . I am e nc losing on e of my ad s for our i nt er est . My wife a nd I ha ve been very f ortuna t e t o hav e be come el i g ible f or a t ri . t o Ital y from Ol i v et ti. We l eav e a r ound Sept ember 15 f or sixt een days a nd should retur n i n t i me for t he Nat i onal Show, I f you a r e to be ther e I pr obabl y wil l be seei ng you. I f you find t i me t o dr o. me a l ine I would a rec ia t e i t . Si nce r e l y , FREDRICK. ON ' S Fr ed r i c kson QEF : r Enc . �Bu si ness Phones 738-2430 CAnol 6-2646 Night Phones Midway 3-3736 Midway 3-3962 BISHOP PRODUCE FRESH PRODUCE FOR PROCESSORS -yr FOOD BROKERS +7-SOUTH WATER MARKET CHICAGO 8, ILLINOIS �August 14, 1963 Mr. William B. Stubbs Trust Company of Georgia Building Atlanta 3, Georgia Dear Bill : May I express my appreciation for your thoughtfulness in sending the copies of the Wireless Bull etin from Cambodia, which contained the major portion of my testimony before the Senate Commerce Committee. I was particularly interested in seeing the French and Cambodian translations. When you write Bill, thank him for me personally in sending these to you, and tell him I am very pleased to know of the distribution. With highest personal regards, I _a m Sincerely, Ivan Allen, Jr. lajr:ad �WILLIAM B. STUBBS TRUST COMPANY OF GEOllGIA BUILDING ATLANTA 3, GEORGIA August 14, 1963 Dear Ivan: Rachael and I thoug ht you might like to have a co py of Wireless Bulletin for We dnesday, August 7, 1963, which was published by USIS Press Section, Phnom Penh, Cambodia. USIS publishes twice a week, in three languages, a news bulletin distributed to papers and pe rsons in Cambodia. Much of the material in the bulletin comes from USIA teletype. The bulletin has a circulation of about 5,000 in Cambodia . A co py of the August 7 issue is enclosed, in each of t he three langua ges. Our son Bill is with USIS in Ca mb odia. He is extremely proud of Atlanta and has received many favorable comments from others. He does not have any res p onsibility for p ublishing the bulletin} but does handle its distribution. Cordial regards. Sincerely, W. B. Stubbs Mayor Ivan Allen, Jr. City Hall �I UNITED LIBERAL CHURCH ROOM 263, 110 PEACHTREE STREET, N. I!., ATLANTA 9, GEORGIA, Tf!L. 872•9887 I UNITARIAN UNIVERSALIST August 5, 1963 Th~ Honorable Charles Weltner Congre s ffinan Georgia Fifth District House of Representative s Building Washington, D.C. Dear Congressman Weltner: 1vith great pleasure , we have observe~ anc supported your actions and coni uct both as candi date for office and as our r epre sentative to Congress. Your influence and pr e stige, locally and nationally, f ar excee~ t ha.t expected of a first-ye ar Cone;r e ssm2.11. As a r esult, you have a unique opportunity t o be an ef f ecti ve fo rce f or progr e ss , and we sincer ely hope you will use it. By vot e of The Boa.r d of Tru stee s , 1-.e stronc;J. y urge your support of Pr esi .ent Kennecly 1 s pr oposed Civil Ri ghts l egi sl ati on. T.fo f eel, de eply , t hat t h is l e gi slat ion i s in t he be st int er e st s of our stat e and country at th is cr ucial t rne ; anci. we f eel your support would be in keeping wit h th e sensibl e and courageous stands we have come t o expect you to t ake ••• and on the basi s of °l'.tl ich you wer e ele cted . We hope t hi s will be but one of :-:ic:ny constructi ve accomplishments of a l ong and succ essf ul poli t i cal career. Very trul y your s, Harry C. Adl ey , Pr esident f or The Boar d of Trustee s UNITED LIBERAL CHURCH (UNITARIAN-UNIVERSALIST) OF ATLANTA HCA/ af s cc: Ol d Post Office Builaing Office Atlant a, Georgia SUNDAY SERVICES 10:3 0 AM 1176 TENTH STREET, N .E. EUG ENE PICKETT, MI NISTER - �[,' ' Press-Radio Center, Telephone 532-6211 Gainesville, Georgia August 3, 1963 Mayor Ivan All en City Hall Atlanta, Georgia Dear Mayor Al l en: I thought you woul d be interested in the enclosed editoria l. Cordially yours, 1 ill J. S~ eyr:F Editor The Georgia Poultry Times and Radio Station WGGA , Gainesville, Ga. • Radio Station WRGA, Rome, Ga. • Radio Station W AAX, Gadsden, Ala. �Glenn Bennett, Metropolitan Planning Commission, advises that the 45 separate incorporated places in the metropolitan area are shown on the attached map. Mr. Bennett said that his office would not be in position to know how many have made a change in any policy of segregation. �The office of Mrs. Bernice McCullough, State Department of Education, (688 - 2390) advises that there are 198 school systems in the state of Georgia. Atlanta is the only school system that this office has any information on relative to integration. �Mr. L. C. Adams of the Georgia Municipal Association, advises that there are approximately 420 active incorporated municipalities There are approximately 590 incorporated municipalities. However about 170 of these towns are so small, they have become inactive (no elected officials, etc.) �A ug ust 5, 1963 Mrs . Frances B . Chene y Hot el Gen eral F or rest Rome,. Georgia Dear Mrs . Cheney: I was so pleased to receive your l etter of August 3, and I am very grateful for your support of my testimony before the Senate Commerce Commi ttee. I am taking the liberty of forwarding you, under separate cover, the compl ete text of my testimony~ and as you indicated,. i t was a very fine experience. I am not familiar with the plans at Georgia Tech for the Presidents appearance . lam, ho ever. writing D r. Harrison today requesting that you be put on the list for two tickets . Louise joins m e in expressing our appreciation and best wishes. Sincerely, Ivan A llen. Jr., Mayor IAJr/eo �MRS. HOLMES CHENEY -HOTEL GENERAL F143.215.248.55 \ <\), 3. . , ��July 12, 1963 Mr . Lewis Tingley Administrative Assistant Mayor's Office City Hall Louisville, Kentucky Dear Mr . Tingley: I certainly enjoyed talking with you over the phone this m orning and we are pleased that you will be in Atlanta on July 31st. Please call either me or Mrs. Robin,on at Ja Z - 4463 so we may arrange a mutually conventent time for you to chat with Mayor Allen. As I said, I am sure he will be quite interested in the reaction you have bad to the Public Acconunofiation Law recently passed by the City of Louisville. It would be extremely helpful for us to have another copy of your Law and I would appreciate your mailing it to me. Sincerely yours, Ann Drummond, Executive Secretary AD/br �Ivan Had a nice conversation with a very enthusiastic Mr. Grinstein (about you). He laugh~d when I told him Mr. Rich regretted, and said that that was what he expected. He said that Sanders testimony did not change the position you had established one bit. • • • a n d ~ he said that Sanders said that "he represented the majority of the people of Atlanta and he was in total opposition of the bill". Grinstein said that Pastore said that he had even more faith in what the Mayor of Atlanta has aaid because of the Sanders sac statement. He also said that Sanders was walking on very thin legal ice. Grinstein said that their correspondence was re.nning about 15 to 1 in opposition of the bill, and he was completely amazed when I told him our ratio. The correspondence which the Committee recei v es has absolutely no influence on the Committee . Grinstein said that Thurman tried to carry Sanders as far in the direction opposition asarn:a he was v/;- trying to work against you. • • and Thurman made Sanders look pr e tty rediculous . • of �July 29, 1963 Rev. James O. Chatham, A ssista.nt Minister McAllister Memorial ~esbyterian Church 900 North Alleghany A venue & East Cedar Street Covington, Virginia Dear Rev. Chatham: l appreciate your letter of July 10th and your sincere inquiry as to how Atlanta bas handled problems of discrimination. I believe· my testimony before the Senat Commerce Committee will give you the overall pictur and a general summary of what bas taken place in thi city. Should you have specific questions later, pleas advise and I will be glad to try to answer them. Sincerely yours, Ivan Allen, Jr., Mayor J.AJr/br 'Enclo ui-e �MCALLISTER MEMORIAL PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH 900 NORTH ALLEGHANY AVENUE AND EAST CEDAR STREET COVINGTON, VIRGINIA MINISTER: JEROLD D. SHETLER TELEPHONES : CHURCH OFFICE AND MINISTER'S 962-2675 STUDY: MANSE: 1433 SOUTH CARPENTER DRIVE MANSE: 962-1495 July 10, 1963 The Mayor Atlanta, Georgia Dear Sir: As you know, racial demonstrations have been taking place for some weeks in the town of Danville, Virginia, about one hundred miles from our town of Covington. We here in Covington are seeking ways to avoid the confusion and turmoil which other towns have known by acting in advance of the difficulty to establish cordial relationships between the races, relationships in wh ich differences can be ironed out around the conference table rather than in the midst of mobs. We look to your city as a pioneer among those who did not wait for the trouble to start before doing something about it. The purpose of my letter is to ask you to send any information which is available concerning the advanced planning which was carried on in your city. If you can send me written information, or direct me to nationally circulated magazines where such information can be found, I will greatly appreciate your service. Thank you for your attention. ~ t&ly~ James O. Chatham assistant minister �STATEMENT by IVAN ALLEN, JR. MAYOR OF f>:- TLANTA, GA. BEFORE COMMITTEE ON COMMERCE REGARDING s. 1732 BILL TO ELIMINATE DISCRIMINATION IN PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AFFECTING INTERSTATE COMiviERCE July 26, 1963 �STATEMENT BY IVAN ALLEN, JR. lviAYOR OF ATLANTA July 2.6, 1963 M r. Chairman and lviembers of the Senate Commerce Committee: I am honored to appear before your Committee. At the beginning I would like to make it clear that I feel qualified to speak on the subject under discussion which is the elimination of racial discrimination, on what I have learned from personal experience and observation in my home city of'Atlanta, Georgia. As perceptive men of wide experience I feel confident that you will agree with me that this is as serious a basic problem in the North, East and \'lest as it is in the South. It must be d e fined as an all-American problem, which requires an all-A meri can solution ba se d on local t houg h t , local action a nd loca l coope r ation. T he 5 00, 000 people who live wi thin our city limits consist of 3 00 , 000 w h ite citizen s a nd s light ly mo re than 2 00, 000 Negro citizens. That makes the population of A tlant a 60 p e rcent white , 4 0 perc ent Negro . That 60 - 4 0 p er c e ntag e emphasize s how essential it is fo r t he p eople of Atlanta, on their l o cal level, to solve the proble m of r acial dis cri m in ation in o r d er to make A tla nta a be t ter plac e i n whi ch t o live. E lim ination of r a cial di scri mination i s no far off philosophical theory to the more than one million people who live in and around Atlanta. �The problem is part and parcel of our daily lives. Its solution must be studied and worked out on our homefr_ont. As the mayor of the Southeast's largest city, I can say to you out of first hand experience and first hand knowledge that nowhere does the problem of eliminating discrimination between the races strike so closely home as it does to the local elected public official. He is the man who cannot pass the buck. From this viewpoint, I speak of the problem as having been brought into sharp focus by decisions of the Supreme Court of the United States and then generally ignored by the Presidents and Congresses of the United States. Like a foundling baby, this awesome problem has been left on the doorsteps of local governments throughout the nation. Now t o take up spe cifics. You gentlemen invited me to tell you how Atlanta has achieve d a considerable measure of comparative success in dealing with racial discrimination. It is tru e that A tlanta has achieved success in eliminating discrimination in areas where some other cities have failed , but we do not boast of our success. Instead of boasting, we say with the humility of those who believe in reality that we have achieved our measure of success only because we looked facts in the face and accepted the Supreme Court's d e cisions as ine vitable and as the law of our land. Having embraced realism in general, we then set out to solve specific problems by local - 2. - �cooperation between pe'ople of good will and good sense representing both races. In attacking the specific problems, we accepted the basic t ruth that the solutions which we sought to achieve in every instance granted to our Negro citizens rights which wbite American citizens and businesses previously had reserved to themselves as special privileges. These special privileges long had been propped up by a multitude of local ordinances and statewide laws which had upheld racial segregation in almost every conceivable form. In Atlanta we had plenty of these props of prejudic e to contend with when w e s e t out t o solve our specific probl e ms of discrimination. In attacking the s e probl e ms, I want to emphasiz e that in not on e s ingl e ins t anc e have w e r etaine d or enhanc e d the privileges of segr eg ation. It has been a long, e xhaus t ing and ofte n discouraging p r ocess and t h e e nd is fa r fr om b e ing in sight. In the 19 5 0 ' s Atlanta made a significant s ta r t w i t h a s er i e s of of re a s o na ble eliminatio ns / discriminati o n s u ch as o n golf cou rses and public transportat i o n. We be gan t o bec o me somewhat conditio ned for mor e extensive and definitive action, which has been taking place in the 1960' s. - 3 - �During the past 'two and a half years, Atlanta has taken the following major steps to eliminate racial discrimination: 1. In September, 1961, we began removing discrimination in public schools in response to a court order. 2. In October, 1961, lunch counters in department and variety stores abolished discrimination by voluntary action. 3. On January 1, 1962 Atlanta city facilities were freed from discrimination by voluntary action of municipal officials. 4. In March, 1962 downtown and arts theaters, of their own volition, abolished discrimination in seating. 5. On January 1, 1963, the city voluntarily abolished separate employment listings for whites and Ne groes. 6. In March, 1963 the city employed Negro firemen. It long ago employed Ne gro policemen. 7. In May of 1963 the Atlanta Real Estate Board (white) and the Empire Real Estate Boa r d (Negro) issued a Statement of Purposes, calling for ethical handling of real estate transactions in controversial areas. 8. In June 1963, the city government opened all municipal swimming pools on a desegregated basis. This was voluntary action to comply with a court order. - 4 - �9. Also in June, 1963, 18 hotels and motels, .representing the leading places of public accommodations in the city, voluntarily removed all segregation for conventions. 10. Again in June, 1963 more than 30 of the city 1 s leading restaurants, of their own volition, abolished segregation in their facilities. You can readily see that Atlanta's s t eps have been taken in some instances in compliance with court decisions, and in other instances the steps have been voluntary prior to any court action. In each instance the action has resulted in whit e citizens relinquishing special privileges which they had enjoyed under the practices of racial discrimination. action Each also has resulted in the Negro citizen being given rights which all others previously had enjoyed and which he has been denied. As I ment ioned at the beginning, Atlanta has achieved only a m e asu r e of succ e ss. I think it would assis t you in unders tanding this if I explaine d how limite d so fa r has been this transition from the old seg r e gate d s oci ety of g e n e ra t ion s past, and also how limit ed so fa r has bee n th e pa rticipation o f the N e g r o citi zens. Significant a s is the vol un t ary elimina tio n o f dis c riminatio n in o ur leading restaurants, it affects s o far only a small percentage of the hundreds of eating places in our city. And participation by Negroes so far has been very slight. For example, one of Atlanta's topmost re staurants se rved only 16 out of - 5 - �' Atlanta's 200, 000 Negrp citizens during the first week of freedom from discrimination. The plan for eliminating discrimination in hotels as yet takes care only of convention delegates. Although prominent Negroes have been accepted as guests in several Atlanta hotels, the Negro citizens, as a whole, seldom appear at Atlanta hotels. Underlying all the emotions of the situation, is the matter of economics. It should be remembered that the right to use a facility does not mean that it will be used or misused by any group, e •pecially the groups in the lower economic otatus. The statements I have given you cover the actual progress made by Atlanta toward total elimination of discrimination. Now I would like to submit my personal reasons why I think Atlanta has resolved some of these problems while in other cities, solutions have se e m e d impos s ible and strife and conflict have resulted. As an illustration, I would like to describe a r e cent visit of an official de legation from a gr e at Eastern city which has a N e gro population of over 60 0 , 000 con s isting of in e x cess of 20% of its whole po pulation . The membe rs of th is del e gati o n at fi r st s imply did n o t under s t a n d and would hardly believe tha t the business, c i vi c a nd politic a l interests .. 6 - �of Atlanta had intently c,oncerned themselve s with the Negro population. I still do not believe that they are convinced that all of our civic bodies backed by the public interest and supported by the City Government have daily concerned themselves with an effort to solve our gravest problem -which is relations between our races. Gentlemen, Atlanta has not swept this question under the rug at any point. Step by step - sometimes under Court order - sometimes voluntarily moving ahead of pressures - sometimes adroitly - and many times clumsily - we have tried to find a solution to each specific problem through an agreement between the affected white ownership and the Negro leadership. To do this we have not appointed a huge general bi-racial committee which too often merely becomes a burial place for unsolved problems. By contrast, each time a specific problem has come into focus, we have appointed the people involved to work out the solution • • • • Theatre owners to work with the top Negro leaders • • • • or hotel owners to work with the top l e ader ship • • • • or certain res t aurant owners who of the ir own volition dealt with the top Negro leadership. By developing the lines o f communication and respectability, we have b een able to reach amicabl e sol utions. Atlant a is the wo r ld' s c ente r of Ne g r o h igher e ducat ion . There are six great Negro u n iversities a nd c olle g e s l oc ated inside o ur city limits. Because of this, a great numb er o f intelligent, well - educated Negro - 7 - �citize ns have chos e n to remain in our city. As a result of their education, they have had the ability to develop a prosperous Negro business community,. In Atlanta it consists of financial institutions like banks - building and loan associations - life insurance companies - chain drug stores - real estate d e ale rs. In fact, t h e y have developed business organizations, I believe, in almost every line of acknowledged American business. There are also many Negro professional men. Then there is another powerful factor working in the behalf of good racial relations in our city., We have news media, both white and N e gro, whos e l e aders strongly b elie v e and put int o practice the g r e at truth that r e sponsibility of the pre ss (and by this I mean radio and t e levision as well as the written pre ss) is ins e parable from fr e edom of the press. The l ead ers hip o f our writte n, s poke n and t e l e vis e d n e ws m e dia join with the busine ss and gove rnme nt leader ship, both white and Negro , i n w orking to solve our problems . V./e are fortunate that w e have one of th e wo r ld famous e di t o r i a l spoke smen fo r rea son and mo d e ration on o ne of our white newspapers, a long with othe r e ditors and many r e porte rs who stress significance rather than sensation in the reporting and interpretatio n of what happens in our city. And we are fortunate in having a strong Negro daily newspaper - The Atlanta Daily World - and a vigorous N egro weekly, The Atlanta Inquirer. - 8 - �The Atlanta Daqy World is owned by a prominent Negro family the Scott family .. which owns and operates a number of other newspapers. The sturdy voices of the Atlanta Daily World and the Atlanta Inquirer, backed by the support of the educational, business and religious community, reach out to our Negro citizens. They speak to them with factual information upon which they can rely. They express opinions and interpretations in which they can have faith. As I see it, our N e gro l ead e r s hip in Atlanta i s r es pon s ibl e a nd constructive . I am sure that our Negro leadership is as desirous of obtainin g additiona l ci vi c a n d economic and p e rs onal rights as is any American citizen. But by constructive I mean to define Atlanta's Negro leadership as being realistic - as recognizing that it is more important to obtain the rights they seek than it is to stir up demonstrations. So it is to the constructive means by which these rights can be obtained that our Negro leaders constantly address themselves. in results instead of rhetoric. They are interested They reach for lasting goals instead of grabbing for momentary publicity. The y are realists, not rabble rousers. Along with integration they want integrity. I do not believe that any sincere American citizen d esires to see the rights o f private business res tric ted by t h e Federal Government unless such restriction is absolutely nee es sary for the welfare of the people of this country. - 9 - �On the other hand, following the line of thought of the decisions of the Federal Courts in the past 15 years, I am not convinced that current rulings of the Courts would grant to American business the privilege of discrimination by race in the selection of its customers. Here again we get into the area of what is right and what is best for the people of this country. If the privilege of selection based on race and color should be granted then would we be giving to business the right to set up a segregated economy? • be u t ilized by the Nation's people? And if so, how fast would this right . .• And how soon would we again be going through the old turmoil of riots, strife, demonstrations, boycotts, picketing? A r e we going to say that i t is all right for the Ne gro cit izen to go into the bank on M ain s tre e t and to deposit his earnings or borrow money, then to go to d e par t ment stores to buy what he n e eds, to go to the super market to pur cha se food for hi s family, and so on along M ain s tree t until h e comes t o a re staur ant o r a hotel - -- In all these oth e r bus ines s plac es h e i s trea ted just like any other cus t om er --- But whe n h e comes t o the restauran t o r th e ho te l , are we going t o s ay tha t i t is r i g h t a nd l egal f o r the opera to rs of these b usines s es , merely as a matter of c o nvenienc e, to insist that the Negr o 's citi zenship be c hanged and that, as a second class citizen, he is to be refused service? I submit that it is not right to allow an American's citizenship t o be changed merely as a matter of convenience. - 10 - �li the Congress should fail to clarify the issue at the present time, then by inference it would be saying that_ you could begin discrimination under the guise of private business. I do not believe that this is what the Supreme Court has intended with its decisions. I do not believe that this is the intent of Congress or the people of this country. I am not a lawyer, Senators. I am not sure I clearly understand all of the testimony involving various amendments to the Constitution and the Commerce clause which has been given to this committee. I have a fundamental respect for the Constitution of the United States. Under this Constitution we have always been able to do what is best for all of the people of this country. I beg of you not to let this is sue of discrimination drown in legalistic waters. I am firmly en nvinced that the Supreme Court insists that the same fundamental rights must be held by eve ry American citizen. Atlanta is a case that proves that the problem of discrimination can be solved to some extent • • • and I us e this "some exte nt" cautiously • • • as we certainly have not s olve d all of the problems; but we have met them i n a number of areas. This ~ be don e locally, voluntarily, and by private business i tself ! 0n the other hand, there are hundr e ds of c o mmunities and cities, certainly throughout the nation that have not ever add ressed themselves to the issue. Where as, others have flagrantly ignored the demand, and today, stand in all defiance to any change. - 11 - �The Congress of t;he United States is now confronted with a grave decision. Shall you pass a public accommodation bill that forces this issue? Or, shall you create another round of disputes over segregation by re:fusing to pass such legislation? Surely, the Congress realizes that after having failed to take any definite action on this subject in the last ten years, to fail to pass this bill would amount to an endorsement of private business setting up an . entirely new status of discrimination throughout the nation. Atlanta might slip backward!;}. Cities like Hotels and restaurants that have already taken this issue upon themselves and opened their doors might find it convenient to go back to the old status. Failure by Congress to take definite action at this time is by inference an endorsement of the right of private busine ss to practice racial discrimination and, in my opinion, would start the same old round of squabble s and de monstrations that w e have had in the past. G e ntle m e n, if I had your proble m armed with the local e xpe rie nc e I have had, I would pass a public accommodation bill. Such a bill, howe ve r, s hould provide a n opportunity fo r e ach local governme nt first to m ee t this pro bl em a nd a ttempt to s olve it o n a l oca l, volunt ary basis, with each busin e ss making its own d e cision. I realize that it i s quite easy t o ask you to give an oppo rtunity t o eac h businessman in each city to make his decision and accomplish such an objective • • • but it is extre mely difficult to legislate such a problem. - 12 - �What I am trying to say is that the pupil placement plan, which. has been widely used in the South, provided a time table approved by the Federal courts which helped in getting over the troubled water of elimination of discrimination in public schools. It seems to me that cities working with private business institutions could now move into the same area and that the federal government legislation should be based on the idea that those businesses have a reasonable time to accomplish such an act. I think a public accorp.modation law now should stand only as the last resort to assurethat discrimination is elimi nate d, but that such a law would gran t a r easonable time for cities and businesses to carry out t hi s function b e for e fe d e ral intervention. It m i ght e v e n be n e c e ssary tha t the time factor be made mo re lenie nt in favor of smalle r citie s and communities , for we all know t hat l arge me t r opolitan ar e a s have th e capa bility of a djusting t o changes more rapidly than smaller c o mmu n i ties . Perhaps this, too, s hould be given consid eration i n you r legislation. But the point I want to emphasize again is that now is the time for l egislative action. Vve cannot dodge the issue. We cannot look back over our shoulders or turn the clock back to the 1860' s. We must take action now to assure a greater f~ture for our citizens and our country. - 13 - �A hundred years ago the abolishment of slavery won the United State-a the acclaim of the whole world when it made every American free in theory. Now the elimination of segregation, which is slavery's stepchild, is a challenge to all of us to make every American free in fact as well as in theory - and again to establish our nation as the true champion of the free world. Mr. Chairman and members of the Committee, I want to thank you for the opportunity of telling you about Atlanta I s efforts to provide equality of citizenship to all within its borders. - 14 - �I . July 26, 1963 Miss Carol Littl~john 4990 Columbia Pike Apartment 304 Arlington, Virginia Dear Miss Littlejohn: I appreciate your letter and your interest in how well racial problems have been handled in Atlanta. I am enclosing a copy of the testimony which I gave to the Senate Commerce Committee regarding the Public Ac-commodation Bill. l believe this testimony will give you a complete swnmary of what bas happened in Atlanta. With appreciation for your interest, I am Sincerely yours, Ivan Allen, Jr., Mayor IAJr/br �DEMOCRATIC NATIONAL COMMITTEE I 1 73 0 K S TR EE T , N.W. WASHINGTON 6 , D . C. TELEPHONE Jul y 19 , 1963 Dear Feliow Democrat: Enclosed you will find two a r ticles which we believe will be of assistance to yo~ in discussing the President's civil rights and d;i.sarmament prqgr?ms . ~28 F EDER A L 3-8 7S0 �THE WALL STREET JOURNAL. © Reprintect by: Demod·atic Natt8FMA1ttee Integration Impact Desegregated Concerns In South Say Patronage Holds Up in Long Run Some Hotels, Restaurants Do Better; Atlanta, Dallas Cite Larger Convention lVIarket New Rights Often Not Used By JAJ\'1ES C. T ANNER Staff Revorter of THE "WALL STREET J OURNAL ATLANTA-Things are swinging thes e days at the Wit's End, a swank North Side night. club which opened its doors last November. Though the Treasury's new expense account rules made things tougI:i at first, the~ Wit's End is now packing in cus tomers regularly .. In Memphis, the 126-room Downtowner ·Motel is doing so well its occupancy is even running ahead of last year 's booming 9.5% raite. · The Downtowner has been filled to, capacity much of the time in recent weeks and a ll signs point to a record year. The financial fortun es of thes.e Southern establis hments are of special interest because both are among those that have begun serving . Negroes for the first time. Their experiences, , plus those of scores _of other businesses from Texas to the Carolinas, point up a significant and perhaps surprising fact: Among those restaurants , hotels, theaters and other places of public accommodation in the South that have begun serviJ:)g or hiring Negroes, only a few r eport suffering any lasting economic consequences. A sizable number, in fact , declare that business has been better than ever. "Couldn't Have Been Smoother" "We were scared to death-we could just see all our white <:ustomers walking out the minute the first Negroes walked in," says Paul Stickney, manager of the Wit's End. "But things couldn't have been any smoother. We know of only one white couple who walked . 1963 by Do w J ones & Company, In c. A ll Rights R eserved. MONDAY. JULY 15, 1963 \ 1730 K Street, N.W .. Washington 6, D.C. out because we admitted Negroes and they Negroes Making Major Strides came back within two weeks. As far as stirring Southern businessmen generally express · things up around here, it's been one big zero." strong opposition to this section of the proThe Wit's End is; one of only three Atlanta posed civil rights legislation. But even withnight clubs s erving both! whites and Negroes. . out such a law, Negroes are making major A'.!l this is not tOJ s ugges t that desegregation · strides in their push to break down segregawoul'd go smoothly, for all Dixie establishtion barriers. The Justice Department reports ments. At Ormond Beach, Fla., near Daytona that some desegregation of commercial faciliBeach, motel operator George Tliomas fs still ties occurred in 143 cities in Southern and reeling from the financial punch delivered by border states in the four weeks ended June 18; boycotting whites when he decided it was the others are joining the list daily. Last week, for instance, a bi-racial com" right thing" to desegregate his 32-unit Star mittee in strongly segregationist Fort Worth of the South Motel sev:en months ago. "My announced that all of the city's public facilibusiness at first dropp·ed about 50%,." he reties, .including hotels, restaurants, theaters, deports. But he adds that an influx of Negro partment stores and athletic contests, would guests quickly took i.w much of the slack, and be desegregated in September when the city's he expresses confidence that many of his schools are scheduled for integration. white customers eventually will return . If the pattern emerging in other Southern But most business m en questioned by The · cities holds true, Fort Worth merchants can Wall Street Journal report no grave economic dislocations, from integration and they leave · expect some protests and loss of business when they first begin accepting Negroes. But no doubt tflat desegrega tion of commercial fa. experience shows that such a dverse effects cilities has, been less painful than expected. are rarely lasting. No Loss of Business Fred Harvey, president of Harvey 's Depart" Tliings have been going like c!ockworkment Store in Nashville, says that when his we're, surprised a nd plea;;ed ," says Dallas hotel store desegregated its lunch counters in 1960 man Henry Rathe,r of last summer's decision only 13 charge accounts were closed out of by the city's major hotels and motels to inte60,000. "The greatest surprise I ever had was graite. Mr. Rather sa-ys a recent check of the the apparent 'so-what' attitude of white cus. city's 35 largest hos telries fail ed to turn up a tomers," sa ys Mt:. Harvey. single ins ta nce of lost bus iness becaus e of deE,ven where bus iness losses occur, they segr egation. " There were a few letters a nd usually are only· tempora ry .. At the 120-room a .crank ca ll or two at firs t, but that's all," Pe.a chtree Manor Hotel in Atlanta, owner comments Mr. Rather. Irving H. Goldstein says his business dropped o.fi 15% when the hotel desegregated a year Broader access to privately owned places ago. "But now we are only slightly behind a . of "public convenience," s uch as hotels, resyear ago a nd we can see we are beginning tauraints, amusement facilities and stores, ha s to recapture the business we initially los t," · become a prime goal of Negro es lately. The declares Mr. Goldstein. ·recent riots in Birmingham, and subsequent Willia m F . Davoren , owner of the Brownie dis.turbances in such cities as Sava nnah, Ga., Drug Co, in Huntsville, Ala., reports that J ackson , Miss. , Danville, Va. , a.nd Tallahassee though his business fell a bit for several weeks Fla., primarily revolved around Negro deafter lunch counters were desegregated, he's mands that merchants open their facilities to Negroes-in some cases as customers and in · now piclted ·up alf that he lost. Says ne: "I . could name a dozen people who regarded it as others as employes. a personal affront when I started serving Ne- . The question has taken on added imporgroes, but have come back as if nothing had tance in recent weeks with the a ppeal to Conhappened." · gress by President Kennedy for Federal power . Memories Are Short to outlaw racial discrimination in a ll pla!!es Even a segregation-minded businessman In of public accommodation. This is unquestionHuntsville agrees that white customers freably the most controversial provision of the quently have short memories when It comes Kennedy civil rights · program and seems to the race question. W. T . :flutchens, general likely to become the focal point of the coming manager at three Walgreen stores there, says Congressional battle over civil rights. he held out when most lune~ counter operators gave in to sit-in pressures last July. In one shopping center where his competition desegregated, Mr. Hutchens says his business shot up sharply and the store's lunch counter volume registered a 12% gain for the year. However, this year business has dropped back to pre.,integration . levels "because a lot ot people have forgotten" the defiant role his stores played during the sit-ins, he adds. Some Southern businessmen who have desegregated say they have picked up extra business as a result of the move. At Raleigh, N.C., where Gino's Restaurant was desegregated this year, owner Jack Griffiths reports only eight whites have walked -out after learning the establishment served Negroes, and he says "we're getting plenty of customers to replace the hard-headed ones ." In Dallas, integration of hotels and restaurants has "opened up an entirely new area of convention prospects," a ccording to Ray Bennison, conv~ntion manager of the Chamber of Commerce. "This year we've probably added $8 million to $10 million of future bookings because we're integrated," Mr. Bennison says. Conventions for Atlanta Within a day after 14 Atlanta hotels announced on June 13 they would begin accepting Negro guests who come to the gni z ed the power of Congress to regulate public conveyance s pas si:ng £ ram one state to another, and said: "And whether Congress, in the exercise of its po er t o regulate commerce amongst the several Sta t es, mi@'lt o r might not pass a law regulating rights in publ i c con ve2 ce s passing from one State to another, is also a ques t ion wh· ch i s not now before us, as the sections in que s tion a no t conceived in any such view." It is clear, therefore, that the Supreme Court wa no t unmindful of the power of Congress under the Commerce Clause wbeC1 it decided the Civil Rights Cases and when it he l d that no one w d even contend that Congress had the right t o pass t hi s t y pe o ~ Legislation under the Commerce Clause or prior to t h e adoption of he 13th, 14-th, and 15th Amendments. Who would seriously contend that the operation off a1 restaurant on Capitol Street in Jackson , Mississippi, could be c' a ssLfied as as commerce among the several States? If such action c ons ~ itutes commerce among the States simply because some o:£ the p1r odt1..'C ts handled were manufactured outside of Mississippi , every act of eve r y citizen in every State could be controlled by Congress on t h e The Constitution should not be stretched entire l y ou t s;~ e basis. a sh ape in an effort to reach what is believed by some to be an ev i l ~ the correction of which is a matter for each State to make its own de ' si o n. This issue was raised in Williams v . Howard J ohnson Restaur ~ , supra, and was held not to fall within the Commerce Clause of t he (C,ns titution. The Court said: "The plaintiff makes the additional content ion bas d am the allegations that the defendant restaurant i s en ga~~ d i n I J-. �interstat·e comme rce because it is located beside an interstate highway and serves interstate travelers. He suggests that a Federal policy has been developed in numerous decisions which requires the elimination of racial restrictions on transportation in interstate commerce and the admission of Negroes to railroad cars, sleeping cars and dining cars without discrimination as to color; and he argues that the commerce clause of the Constitution (Article I, Section 8, Clause 3), which empowers Congress to regulate commerce among the states, is self-executing so that even without a prohibitory statute no person engaged in interstate commerce may place undue restrictions upon it. "The cases upon which the plaintiff relies in each instance disclosed discriminatory action against persons of the colored race by carriers engaged in the transportation of passengers in interstate commerce. 11 "In every instance the conduct condemned was that of an organization directly engaged in interstate commerce and the line of authority would be persuasive in the determination of the present controversy if it could be said that the defendant restaurant was so engaged. We think, however, that the cases cited are not applicable because we do not find that a restaurant is engaged in interstate commerce merely because in the course of its business of furnishing accommodations to the general public it serves persons who are traveling from state to state. As an instrument of local commerce, the restaurant is not subject to the constitutional and statutory provisions discussed above and, thus, is at liberty to deal with such persons as it may select. " Neither the fact that some customers of an establishment may be travelling in interstate commerce nor the fact that some of the goods sold may have been purchased from outside the State --' constitutes commerce .- . 13 - �subject to control by Congress. In Elizabeth Hospital, Inc. v . Richardson, u.S.C.A .8th, 269 F.2d 167, the Court held that the treatment of some patients who were travelling in interstate commerce did not destroy the purely local character of the services furnished by the hospital, and said: "The fact that some of plaintiff's patients might travel in interstate commerce does not alter the local character of pl~irttiff's hospital. If the converse were true. every coynt~v store · that obtains its goods fro.m or S§rves cu,stomers residing outside the ,St?t~. would • • I .Oe . selling in I ' . interstate commerce,. .• Un1.fbrtnl7t .,. ,the coUtt;s have held to the contrary. A.L.A. Schechter Poultry Corp. v. United States, 1935, 295 U.S. 4~5, 5.5 S. Ct. 837, 79 L.Ed. 1570; Lawson v. Woodmere, 4 Cir., 1954, 217 F.2d 148, 150; Jewel Tea Co. v. Williams, 10 Cir., 1941, 118 F.2d 202, 207; Lipson v. Socony-Vacuum Corp., 1 Cir., 1937, 87 F. 2d 265, 267, certiorari granted 300 U.S. 651, 57 S.Ct. 612, 81 L.Ed. 862 certiorari dismissed 301 U.S. 711, 57 S.Ct. 788, 81 L.Ed. 1364." Congress is now asked to control the operation of country stores and hotels on the theory that their operation constitutes commerce among the several States. The statement of the proposition is so ridiculous that it need not be further refuted . It is my understanding that the Attorney General of the United States has suggested to this Committee that it disregard the decision of t he Supreme Court of the United States in the Civil Rights Cases. I have always been under the impression that it was the duty of the Attorney General of the Unite@ States to advise congressional committees as to the present status of the law. I do not believe he has the authority to recommend to you that you exercise, on behalf of the Federal Government, power which the Supreme Court has specifically held to be unconstitutional. - J.4 - �In conclusion, I would like to ask certain members of the Congress two questions: How iong do you plan to bow to the (l) unreasonable and unconstitutionai demahds 0£ selfish minorities i n your state? (2) When do you expect td begin to represent the great majority of your own people? Another ques tion naturally follo~s--how far do you think the great white maj ority of this nation wiii stand to be pus hed? I have received and am receivirtg daily letters from substantial everyday citizens iri every state of tHis nation and I say to you I seriously that our fine white citizens have stood just about as much of this minority insanity as they cart take. Gentlemen, you are just about to hear from that great, silent, substantial white majority back home. When John Doe and Ole Joe Q. Doakes oh Main Street in every cityj town, village and cross-road in your state; finds out exactly what is really in this legislation--just what the present U.S. Attorney General and the Negro minorities want today--turmoil will really break loose in this nation. If you think 500,000 Negroes marching on Washington is something, pass this legislation and you'll find out what one hundred million angry white Americans will do. Please think deeply,: an these matters. Think seriously as to how much the white man will take in having his rights chipped away with new legislation such as this and by each decision of the Federal Courts. Are there no rights of the individual sacred today in this country? Equality in a social sense is attainable only in total slavery. Justice Brandei:s said, "One of the inalienable rights of men is to be let alone." This certainly applies to the hard- working, small busines s man? Why should not the individual, who has worked to produce his own business, have the right to decide whom he will serve, whom he will associate with, and whom he will let on his premises? - 15 - �What we . are about to experience in our nation today is tyranny of the mob. The intent of this legislation is to steal away the fundamental rights of man to own and manage his private property as he sees fit . The President and Attorney General are sewing the seeds of hate and vi olence. The nation could reap a bloody harvest. Gentlemen, if you pass this Civil Rights legislation, you are passing it under the threat of mob action and violence on the part of Negro groups and under various types of intimidation I from the Executive Branch of this government. This legislation must be defeated if this nation is to survive as a C9nstitutional Republic of Sovereign States. The decision is yours. May God have mercy on your souls! THE END - 16 - �STATEMENT BY IVAN ALLEN, JR. MAYOR OF ATLANTA MR. CHAIRMAN AND MEMBERS JULY 26, 1963 OF THE SENATE COMMERCE COMMITTEE ..... I AM HONORED TO APPEAR BEFORE YOUR COMMITTEE. AT THE BEGINNING. . . I WOULD LIKE TO MAKE IT CLEAR THAT I FEEL QUALIFIED TO SPEAK ON THE SUBJECT UNDER DISCUSSION . . . WHICH IS THE ELIMINATION OF RACIAL DISCRIMINATION . . . ON WHAT I HA VE LEARNED FROM PERSONAL EXPERIENCE .. . AND OBSERVAT I ON IN MY HOME CIT Y OF ATLA NTA ... GEORGIA. A S P E R CE P TIVE M E N O F WIDE E X PERIEN C E . . . I C O NFIDENT THAT YO U WIL L AGREE WITH ME FEEL THAT THIS IS AS SERIO US A BASIC PROB L EM I N THE NOR TH .. .. EAST . . . AND WEST . .. AS I T IS IN THE SOUTH. �2 IT MUST BE DEFINED AS AN ALL-AMERICAN PROBLEM... WHICH REQUIRES AN ALL-AMERICAN SOLUTION BASED ON LOCAL THOUGHT. . . LOCAL ACTION. . . AND LOCAL COOPERATION. THE 500 THOUSAND PEOPLE WHO LIVE WITHIN OUR CITY LIMITS CONSIST OF 300 THOUSAND WHITE CITIZENS ... AND SLIGHTLY MORE THAN 200 THOUSAND NEGR O CITIZENS. THAT-. MAKES THE POPULATION OF ATLANTA SIXTY PERCENT WHITE ..... FORTY PERCENT NEGRO. THAT SIXTY - FORTY PERCENTAGE EMPHASIZES HOW ESSENTIAL IT IS FOR THE PEOPLE OF ATLANTA ... ON THEIR LOCAL LEVEL .... T O SOLVE THE PROBLEM OF RACIAL DISCRIMINATION IN ORDER TO MAKE ATlANTA A BETTER PLACE IN WHICH TO LIVE . �3 ELIMINATION OF RACIAL DISCRIMINATION IS NO FAR OFF PHILOSOPHICAL THEORY TO THE MORE THAN ONE MILLION PEOPLE. . . WHO LIVE IN AND AROUND ATLANTA. THE PROBLEM IS PART AND PARCEL OF OUR DAILY LIVES. ITS SOLUTION MUST BE STUDIED AND WORKED OUT ON OUR HOMEFRONT. AS THE MAYOR OF THE SOUTHEAST'S LARGEST CITY . . . I CAN SAY TO YOU ... OUT OF FIRST HAND EXPERIENCE ... AND FIRST HAND KNOWLEDGE THAT NOWHERE DOES THE PROBLEM OF ELIMINATING DISCRIMINAT ION BETWEEN THE RACES ... STRIKE SO CLOSELY HOME ... AS IT DO ES TO T HE L OCAL E L E CTED P U B LIC OFFICIAL. HE IS THE MAN WHO CANNOT PASS THE BUCK. FRO M THIS VIE WP O I N T. . . I SPEAK OF THE PROBLEM AS HAVING BEEN BRO UGHT INTO SHARP FOCUS �4 BY DECISIONS OF THE SUPREME COURT OF THE UNITED STATES ... AND THEN GENERALLY IGNORED BY THE PRESIDENTS ... AND CONGRESSES OF THE UNITED STATES. LIKE A FOUNDLING BABY. . . THIS AWESOME PROBLEM HAS BEEN LEFT ON THE DOORSTEPS OF LOCAL GOVERNMENTS THROUGHOUT THE NATION. · . NOW TO TAKE UP SPECIFICS. YOU GENTLEMEN INVITED ME TO TELL YOU HOW ATLANTA HAS ACHIEVED A CONSIDERABLE MEASURE OF COMPARATIVE SUCCESS IN DEALING WITH RACIAL DISCRIMINATION. IT IS TRUE THAT ATLANTA HAS ACHIEVED SUCCESS IN ELIMINATING DISCRIMINATION IN AREAS WHERE SOME OTHER CITIES HA VE FAILED .... BUT WE DO NOT BOAST OF OUR SUCCESS. INSTEAD OF BOASTING .... WE SAY �5 WITH THE HUMILITY OF THOSE WHO BELIEVE IN REALITY THAT WE HA VE ACHIEVED OUR MEASURE OF SUCCESS ONLY BECAUSE WE LOOKED FACTS IN THE FACE AND ACCEPTED THE SUPREME COURT'S DECISIONS AS INEVITABLE ... AND AS THE LAW OF OUR LAND. HA YING EMBRACED REALISM IN GENERAL. . . . . WE THEN SET OUT TO SOLVE SPECIFIC PROBLEMS BY LOCAL COOPERATION BETWEEN PEOPLE OF GOOD WILL AND GOOD SENSE REPRESENTING BOTH RACES . IN ATTAC K ING THE SPECIFIC PROBLEMS . .. W E ACCEPTED THE BASIC TRUTH THAT THE SOLUTIONS WHICH W E SOUGHT TO ACHIEVE IN EVERY INSTANCE ... GRANTED TO OUR NE GRO CITI Z ENS RIGH T S WHICH WHIT E AMERICAN CITIZENS ... A ND B U SINESS E S PREVI OUSLY HAD RESERVED T O THEMSE L YES AS SPE CIAL PRIVIL EGES . �6 THESE SPECIAL PRIVILEGES LONG HAD BEEN PROPPED UP BY A MULTITUDE OF LOCAL ORDINANCES AND STATEWIDE LAWS WHICH HAD UPHELD RACIAL SEGREGATION IN ALMOST EVERY CONCEIVABLE FORM. IN ATLANTA WE HAD PLENTY OF THESE PROPS OF PREJUDICE TO CONTEND WITH ... WHEN WE SET OUT TO SOLVE OUR SPECIFIC PROBLEMS OF DISCRIMINATION. IN ATTACKING THESE PROBLEMS .... I WANT TO EMPHASIZE THAT IN NOT ONE SINGLE INSTANCE HA VE WE RETAINED ... OR ENHANCED THE PRIVILEGES OF SEGREGATION. IT HAS BEEN A LONG ... EXHAUSTING . . . AND OFTEN DISCOURAGING PROCESS FROM BEING IN SIGHT . AND THE END IS FAR �7 IN THE 195 0' s AT LANT A MADE A SIGNIFICANT STA RT ... WITH A SERIES OF REASONABLE ELIMINATIONS OF DISCRIMINATION SUCH AS ... ON GOLF COURSES ... AND PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION. WE BEGAN TO BECOME SOMEWHAT CONDITIONED FOR MORE EXTENSIVE ... AND DEFINITIVE ACTION. . . WHICH HAS BEEN TAKING PLACE IN THE 1960 1 s. DURING THE PAST TWO AND A HALF YEARS ... ATLANTA HAS T A KEN THE FOLLOWING MAJOR STEPS TO ELIMINATE RACIAL DISCRIMINATION: 1. IN SEPTEMBER , 196 1, WE BEGAN REMOVING DISCRIM INATION IN PUBLIC SC H OOLS IN RESPONSE T O A COURT ORDER. 2 . IN OC T O BER, 196 1, LUNCH COUNTERS IN DEPARTMENT AND VARIETY STORES ABOLISHED DISCRIMINATION BY VOLUNTARY ACTION . �- - - - - - - -- -- - - - - -- - - --- - - - 8 3. ON JANUARY 1, 1962 ATLANTA CITY FACILITIES WERE FREED FROM DISCRIMINATION BY VOLUNTARY ACTION OF MUNICIPAL OFFICIALS. 4. IN MARCH, 1962, DOWNTOWN AND AR TS TH.IfATERS .... OF THEIR OWN VOLITION ... ABOLISHED DISCRIMINATION IN SEATING. 5 . ON JANUARY 1, 1963 .. THE CITY VOLUNTARILY ABOLISHED SEPARATE EMPLOYMENT LISTINGS F OR WHITES AND NEGROES . 6. I1,r MARC H, 196 3, NEGRO FIREMEN. THE CITY EMPLOYED IT LONG AGO EMPLOYED NEGRO P OLICEMEN. 7. IN MAY OF 1963, THE ATLANTA REAL ESTATE BOARD (WHITE} ... AND THE EMPIRE REAL ESTATE BOARD ( NEGRO) .. . ISSUED A STATEMENT OF �9 PURPOSES . . . CALLING FOR ETHICAL HANDLING OF REAL ESTATE TRANSACTIONS IN CONTROVERSIAL AREAS. 8. IN JUNE 1963 .• THE CITY GOVERNMENT OPENED ALL MUNICIPAL SWIMMING POOLS ON A DESEGREGATED BASIS. THIS WAS VOLUNTARY ACTION TO COMPLY WITH A COURT ORDER. 9 . ALSO, IN JUNE, 1963, EIGHTEEN HOTELS AND MOTELS, . . . REPRESENTING THE LEADING PLACES OF PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS IN THE CITY ... VOLUNTARILY REMOVED ALL SEGREGATION FOR CONVENTIONS. 10 . AGAIN IN JUNE , 1963 ... MORE THAN THIRTY OF THE CITY'S LEADING RESTAURANTS . . . OF THEIR OWN VOLITION . . . ABOLISHED SEGR EGATION IN THEIR FACILITIES. YOU CAN READIL Y SEE THAT ATLANTA'S HAVE BEEN TAKEN IN STEPS SOME INSTANCES IN COMPLIANCE �10 WITH COURT DECISIONS .... AND IN OTHER INSTANCES THE STEPS HAVE BEEN VOLUNTARY PRIOR TO ANY COURT ACTION. IN EACH INSTANCE ... THE ACTION HAS RESULTED IN WHITE CITIZENS RELINQUIS H ING SPECIAL PRIVILEGES WHICH THEY HAD EN.JOYED UNDER THE PRACTICES OF RACIAL DISCRIMINATION. EACH ACTION ALSO HAS RESULTED IN THE NEGRO CITIZEN BEING GIVEN RIGHTS WHICH ALL OTHERS PREVIOUSL Y HAD ENJOYED . ... AND WHICH HE HAS BEEN DENIED. AS I MENTIONED AT THE BEGINNING . .. ATLANTA HAS A CHIEVED ONL Y A MEASURE OF SUCCESS . I T H INK I T W OU L D ASSIST YOU IN UNDERSTANDIN G THIS IF I EX PLAINED HOW LIMITED SO FAR H AS BEEN THIS TRANSITIO N F R O M T H E OLD SEGREGATE D SOCIETY O F GENERATIONS PAST .... AND A L SO H O W LIMITED SO FAR HAS BEEN THE PARTICIPATIO N OF THE NEGRO CITIZENS. �11 SIGNIFICANT AS IS THE VOLUNTARY ELIMINATION OF DISCRIMINATION IN OUR LEADING RESTAURANTS .... IT AFFECTS SO FAR ONLY A SMALL PERCENTAGE OF THE HUNDREDS OF EATING PLACES IN OUR CITY. AND PARTICIPATION BY NEGROES SO FAR HAS BEEN VERY SLIGHT. FOR EXAMPLE ... ONE OF ATLANTA'S TOPMOST RESTAURANTS SERVED ONLY SIXTEEN ATLANTA'S OUT OF 200 THOUSAND NEGRO CITIZENS DURING THE FIRST WEEK OF FREEDOM FROM DISCRIMINATION. THE PLAN FOR ELIMINATING DISCRIMINATION IN HOTELS AS YET TAKES CARE ONLY OF CONVENTION DELEGATES. ALTHOUGH PROMINENT NEGROES HAVE BEEN A CCEPTED AS GUESTS IN SEVERAL ATLANTA HOTELS . . . THE NEGRO CITIZENS ... AS A WHOLE . .. . SELDOM APPEA R AT ATLANTA HO T E LS. �12 UNDERLYING ALL THE EMOTIONS OF THE SITUATION . . . . IS THE MATTER OF ECONOMICS. IT SHOULD BE REMEMBERED THAT THE RIGHT TO USE A FACILITY ... DOES NOT MEAN THAT IT WILL BE USED OR MISUSED . BY ANY GROUP ... ESPECIALLY THE GROUPS IN THE LOWER ECONOMIC STATUS. THE STATEMENTS I HAVE GIVEN YOU COVER THE ACTUAL PROGRESS MADE BY ATLANTA TOTAL ELIMINATION NOW REASONS WHY TOWARD OF DISCRIMINATION. I WOULD LIKE TO SUBMIT MY PERSONAL I THINK AT LANT A HAS RESOLVED SOME OF THESE PROBLEMS WHILE IN OTHER CITIES . . . SOLUTIONS HA VE SEEMED IMPOSSIBLE AND STRIFE ... AND CONFLICT HA VE RESULTED . A S A N ILLUS TRATION . . . I WOULD LIK E T O DESCRIBE A RECENT VISIT OF AN OF FICIAL D ELEGATION FROM A GREAT EASTERN C I TY WHICH HAS A NE G RO �13 POPULATION OF OVER 600 THOUSAND CONSISTING IN EXCESS OF TWENTY PERCENT OF OF ITS WHOLE POPULATION. THE MEMBERS OF THIS DELEGATION AT FIRST SIMPLY DID NOT UNDERSTAND .... AND WOULD HARDLY BELIEVE THAT THE BUSINESS .... CIVIC .... AND POLITICAL INTERESTS OF ATLANTA HAD INTENTLY CONCERNED THEMSELVES WITH THE NEGRO POPULATION. I STILL DO NOT BELIEVE THAT THEY ARE CONVINCED ... THAT ALL OF OUR CIVIC B ODIES BACKED BY THE PUBLIC INTEREST .... AND SUPPORTED BY THE CITY GOVERNMENT. . . HA VE DAILY CONCEREND THEMSELVES WITH AN EFFOR T TO SOLVE OUR GRAVEST PROBLEM ... ... WHICH IS RELATIONS BETWEEN OUR RACES . AT LANT A HAS NOT SWEPT RUG AT ANY P OINT. GENTLEMEN .... THIS QUESTION UNDER THE STEP BY STEP ... . SOMETIMES UNDER COURT ORDER . .. . . . SOMETIMES VOLUNTARILY �14 MOVING AHEAD OF PRESSURES ..... SOMETIMES ADROITLY .... . . . AND MANY TIMES CLUMSILY ..... WE HAVE TRIED TO FIND A SOLUTION TO EACH SPECIFIC PROBLEM . . . THROUGH AN AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE AFFECTED WHITE OWNERSHIP AND THE NEGRO LEADERSHIP. TO DO THIS. . . WE HA VE NOT APPOINTED A HUGE GENERAL MERELY BI-RACIAL COMMITTEE .... WHICH TOO OFTEN BECOMES A BURIAL PLACE FOR UNSOLVED PROBLEMS . . BY CONTRAST .. . EACH TIME A SPECIFIC PROBLEM HAS COME INTO FOCUS ... . WE HAVE APPOINTED THE:EIDPLE INVOLVED TO WORK OUT THE SOLUTION.... THEATER OWNERS TO WORK WITH THE TOP NEGRO LEADERS ... . . OR HOTEL OWNERS TO WORK WITH THE TOP LEADERSHIP ..... OR CERTAIN RESTAURANT OWNERS WHO OF THEIR OWN VOLITION DEALT WITH THE TOP NEGRO LEADERSHIP. BY DEVELOPING �15 THE LINES OF COMMUNICATION AND RESPECTABILITY ... WE HA VE BEEN ABLE TO REACH AMICABLE SOLUTIONS. ATLANTA IS THE WORLD'S HIGHER EDUCATION. CENTER OF NEGRO THERE ARE SIX GREAT NEGRO UNIVERSITIES .... AND COLLEGES ... LOCATED INSIDE OUR CITY LIMITS. BECAUSE OF THIS ... A GREAT NUMBER OF INTELLIGENT ... WELL-EDUCATED NEGRO CITIZENS HA VE CHOSEN TO REMAIN IN OUR CITY. AS A RESULT OF THEIR EDUCATION .. . THE Y HAVE HAD THE ABILIT Y TO DEVELOP IN A TLA NTA A PROSPEROUS NEGRO BUSINESS COMMUNITY. IT CONSIS T S OF FINANCIAL I NSTI TUTIONS LIK E BANKS .... B UIL DING AND LOAN A SSOCIAT IONS .... L IFE INS UR A N C E COMPANIES .... C HAIN DRU G S T O R ES ... R E AL E ST A T E DEA LER S. I N F AC T . .. THE Y HAVE D E VELOP ED BUSINESS ORGANIZATIO NS ... I BELIEVE ... IN ALMOST EVERY LINE OF ACKNOWLEDGED AMERICAN BUSINESS. �16 THERE ARE ALSO MANY NEGRO- PROFESSIONAL MEN. THEN THERE IS ANOTHER POWERFUL FACTOR WORKING IN THE BEHALF OF GOOD RACIAL RELATIONS IN OUR CITY. WE HA VE NEWS MEDIA. . . BOTH WHITE AND NEGRO ... WHOSE LEADERS STRONGL Y BELIEVE AND PUT INTO PRACTICE THE GREAT TRUTH THAT RESPONSIBILITY OF THE PRESS . . ( AND BY THIS I MEAN RADIO AND TELEVISION AS WELL AS THE WRITTE N PRESS) . . IS INSEPARAB LE FROM FREEDOM OF THE PRESS. THE LEADERSHIP OF OUR WRITTEN ... SPOKEN A ND T ELEVISED NEWS MEDIA JOIN WITH THE B USINESS AND GOVE R NMENT LEADERSHIP ... BOTH WHITE A ND NE G RO ... IN W OR KING TO SO L VE OUR PRO BLE MS . WE AR E F OR TU NATE THAT WE HAVE ONE OF THE WORLD FAMOUS EDIT O RIAL SPOKESMEN FOR REASON AND �17 MODERATION ON ONE OF OUR WHITE NEWSPAPERS ... ALQNG WITH OTHER EDITORS AND MANY REPORTERS WHO STRESS SIGNIFICANCE ... RATHER THAN SENSATION IN THE REPORTING AND INTERPRETATION OF WHAT HAPPENS IN OUR CITY. AND WE ARE FORTUNATE IN HAVING A STRONG NEGRO DAILY NEWSPAPER .. " THE ATLANTA DAILY WORLD 1 1 AND A VIGOROUS NEGRO WEEKLY .. 11 THE ATLANTA INQUIRER 1 1 • T H E ATLANTA DA IL Y WORLD IS A PROMINENT NEGRO FAMIL Y-- OWNED BY THE SCOTT FAMIL Y- - - WH ICH O W NS AND OPERATES A NUMBER OF OTHER NEWSPAPERS . THE S TURD Y VOICES OF THE AT LANTA DA IL Y WORLD A ND THE AT L A N TA INQU IRER .... BACKED BY THE SUPPORT OF THE E D UCATIONAL .... BUSINESS . ... AND RELIGIOUS COMMUNITY .... REACH OUT TO OUR NEGRO �18 CITIZENS. THEY SPEAK TO THEM WITH FACTUAL INFORMATION UPON WHICH THEY CAN RELY. EXPRESS OPINIONS THEY AND INTERPRETATIONS IN WHICH THEY CAN HA VE FAITH. AS I SEE IT. . . OUR NEGRO LEADERSHIP IN ATLANTA IS RESPONSIBLE AND CONSTRUCTIVE. I AM SURE THAT OUR NEGRO LEADERSHIP IS AS DESIROUS OF OBTAINING ADDITIONAL CIVIC AND ECONOMIC ... . AND PERSONAL RIGHTS . .. AS IS ANY AMERICAN CITIZEN. BlTI' B Y CONSTRUCTIVE .. . I MEAN TO DEFINE ATLANTA'S NEGRO LEA DERSHIP AS BEING REALISTIC - - AS RECOGNIZING THAT IT IS MORE IMPORTANT TO OBTA IN THE RIGHTS THE Y SE E K THAN I T IS TO STIR UP DEMONS T RATIONS . SO IT IS T O T HE C ONS T R U CTIVE MEA N S .. . BY WHICH THESE RIGHTS CAN B E O B TAI N E D THAT O U R NEGRO LEADERS CONSTANTLY ADDRESS THEMSELVES. THEY ARE �19 INTERESTED IN RESULTS INSTEAD OF RHETORIC. REACH FOR LASTING GOALS INSTEAD MOMENTARY PUBLICITY. NOT RABBLE ROUSERS. THEY OF GRABBING FOR THEY ARE REALISTS ... ALONG WITH INTEGRATION ... THEY WANT INTEGRITY. I DO NOT BELIEVE CITIZEN THAT ANY SINCERE AMERICAN DESIRES TO SEE THE RIGHTS OF PRIVATE BUSINESS RESTRICTED BY THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT UNLESS SUCH RESTRICTION IS ABSOLUTELY NECESSARY FOR THE WELFARE OF THE PEOPLE OF THIS COUNTRY. ON THE OTHER HAND. . . FOLLOWING THE LINE OF THOUGHT OF THE DECISIONS OF THE FEDERAL COURTS IN THE PAST FIFTEEN YEARS . .. I AM NOT CONVINCED THAT CURRENT RULINGS OF THE COURTS ... WOULD GRANT T O AMERICAN BUSINESS THE PRIVILEGE OF DISCRIMINATION BY RACE IN THE SELECTION O F ITS CUSTOMERS. �20 HERE AGAIN WE GET INTO THE AREA OF WHAT IS RIGHT AND WHAT IS BEST FOR THE PEOPLE OF THIS COUNTR Y. IF THE PRIVILEGE OF SELEG TION BASED ON RACE AND COLOR ... SHOULD BE GRANTED ... THEN WOULD WE BE GIVING TO BUSINESS THE RIGHT TO SET UP A SEGREGATED ECONOMY? . ... . . AND IF SO . . . HOW FAST WOULD THIS RIGHT BE UTILIZED BY THE NATION'S PEOPLE? . . . . . AND HOW SOON WOULD WE AGAIN BE GOING T H ROUGH THE OLD TURMOIL OF RIOTS .... STRIFE ... DEMONSTRATIONS ... BO YCOTTS ... PICKETING? ARE WE GOI NG TO SA Y THAT IT IS ALL RIGHT FO R T HE NEGRO CITIZEN TO GO INTO T HE BANK ON ST RE ET .. . A ND TO DEPOSIT HIS MAIN EARNINGS . .. OR BORROW M O NEY . .. T HEN T O G O T O DEPAR T ME N T S TORE S T O BUY WHAT HE NEE DS . .. . T O G O T O THE SUPERMARKET TO PURC HASE FOOD FOR HIS FAMILY .... AND SO ON ALONG �21 MAIN STREET UNTIL HE COMES TO -A RESTAURANT HOTEL. OR A IN ALL THESE OTHER BUSINESS PLACES. . . IS TREATED JUST LIKE ANY OTHER CUSTOMER. WHEN HE COMES TO THE RESTAURANT HE BUT OR THE HOTEL .... ARE WE GOING TO SAY THAT IT IS RIGHT AND LEGAL ... FOR THE OPERATORS OF THESE BUSINESSES .... MERELY AS A MATTER OF CONVENIENCE ... TO INSIST THAT THE NEGRO'S CITIZENSHIP BE CHANGED ... AND THAT .. . AS A SECOND CLASS CITIZEN ... HE IS TO BE REFUSED SERVICE? I SUBMIT THAT IT IS NOT RIGHT TO ALLOW AN AMERICAN'S CITIZENSHIP TO BE CHANGED MERELY AS A MATTER OF CONVENIENCE . IF THE CONGRESS SHOULD FAIL TO CLARIF Y T H E I SS UE AT THE PRESENT TIME . . . THEN B Y INFERENCE IT W OULD B E SAYIN G THAT YOU COULD B EGIN DIS CRI M I NATION UNDER THE GUIS E OF P RIVA T E BUSINE SS . I DO NOT BELIE VE �22 THAT THIS IS WHAT THE SUP RE ME GOUR T WITH ITS DECISIONS. THE INTENT OF I ·. DO NOT ' CONGRESS HAS INTENDED BELIEVE THAT THIS IS OR THE PEOPLE OF THIS COUNTRY. I AM NOT A LA WYER .. SENATORS. I AM NOT SURE I CLEARLY UNDERSTAND ALL OF THE TESTIMONY INVOLVING VARIOUS AMENDMENTS TO THE CONSTITUTION AND THE COMMERCE CLAUSE WHICH HAS B EEN GIVEN TO THIS COMMITTEE . I HAVE A FUNDAMENTAL RESPECT FOR THE CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES. UNDER T H IS CONSTITUTION ... WE HAVE ALWA YS BEEN ABLE TO DO WHA T IS BEST FOR ALL OF THE PEOPLE OF THIS C OU N T RY. I BE G O F YOU ... NOT T O LET T HIS ISSUE O F DISCRIMINAT ION DROW N IN LE GALIS TIC WA T ERS. I AM FIRMLY C O NVINCED THAT THE SUPR E M E GOUR T INSISTS THAT TH~ SAME FUNDAME NTAL RIGHTS MUST BE BY EVERY AMERICAN CITIZEN. HELD �23 ATLANTA IS A CASE THAT PROVES THAT THE PROBLEM OF DISCRIMINATION CAN BE SOLVED TO SOME EXTENT ..... AND I USE THIS 11 SOME EXTENT 11 • • • • CAUTIOUSLY ... AS WE CERTAINLY HAVE NOT SOLVED ALL OF THE PROBLEMS .... BUT WE HAVE MET THEM IN A NUMBER OF AREAS. THIS CAN BE DONE LOCALLY ... VOLUNTARILY .... AND BY PRIVATE BUSINESS ITSELF! ON THE OTHER HAND. . . THERE ARE HUNDREDS OF COMMUNITIES AND CITIES ... CERTAINLY THROUGHOUT THE NATION THAT HA VE NOT EVER ADDRESSED THEMSELVE S TO THE ISSUE . WHEREAS . .. OTHERS HAVE FLAGRANTLY IGNORED THE D E MAND .. . . AND TODAY . . . S TAND IN ALL DEFIANCE TO ANY CHANGE . THE C ONGRESS O F THE UNI TED STATES IS NOW C ONFRONTE D WITH A GRAVE DECISION. SHALL YOU PASS A PUBLIC ACC OMMO DATION B I LL THAT FORCES THIS �24 ISSUE? OR ... SHALL YOU CREATE ANOTHER RO U ND OF DISPUTES OVER SEGREGATION BY REFUSING TO PASS SUCH LEGISLATION? SURELY. . . THE CONGRESS REALIZES THAT AFTER HAVING FAILED TO TAKE ANY DEFINITE ACTION ON THIS SUBJECT IN THE LAST TEN YEARS ... TO FAIL TO PASS THIS BILL WOULD AMOUNT TO AN ENDORSEMENT OF PRIVATE BUSINESS SETTING UP AN ENTIRELY NEW STATUS OF DISCRIMINATION THROUGHOUT THE NATION. AT LANT A MIGHT SLIP BACKWARDS . REST AU R A NTS CITIES LIKE HOTELS AND THAT HA VE A LREAD Y TAKEN THIS ISSUE UPON THEM SELVES ... . A ND OPENED THEIR DOOR S MIGHT F IND IT CO NVE NIENT TO GO BAC K TO THE OLD STATUS . FAIL URE BY C ONGR E SS T O T AKE DE F INIT E A C T ION AT THIS TIME IS BY INFE R ENCE AN E N DOR S E M E NT O F THE RIGHT OF PRIVATE BUSINESS TO PRACTICE RACIAL DISCRIMINATION �25 AND ... IN MY OPINION .. WOULD START THE SAME ROUND OF SQUABBLES AND DEMONSTRATIONS OLD THAT WE HAVE HAD IN THE PAST. GENTLEMEN .... IF I HAD YOUR PROBLEM , . . . ARMED WITH THE LOCAL EXPERIENCE I HAVE HAD ... I WOULD PASS A PUBLIC ACCOMMODATION BILL. SUCH A BILL ... HOWEVER .. SHOULD PROVIDE AN OPPORTUNITY FOR EACH LOCAL GOVERNMENT FIRST TO MEET THIS PROBLEM AND ATTEMPT TO SOLVE IT ON A LOCAL .. VOLUNTARY BASIS .. WITH EACH BUSINESS MAKING ITS OWN DECISION. I REALIZE THAT IT IS QUITE EASY TO ASK YOU TO GIVE AN OPPORTUNITY TO EACH BUSINESS MAN IN EACH CITY TO MAKE HIS DECISION AND ACCOMPLISH SUCH AN OBJECTIVE . . . BUT IT IS EXTREMELY DIFFICULT TO LEGISLATE SUCH A PROBLEM. �26 WHAT I AM TRYING TO SAY IS THAT THE PUPIL PLACEMENT PLAN. . . WHICH HAS BEEN WIDELY USED IN THE SOUTH .. PROVIDED A TIME TABLE APPROVED BY THE FEDERAL COURTS WHICH HELPED IN GETTING OVER THE TROUBLED WATER OF ELIMINATION OF DISCRIMINATION IN PUBLIC SCHOOLS. IT SEEMS TO ME THAT CITIES WORKING WITH PRIVATE BUSINESS INSTITUTIONS COULD NOW MOVE INTO THE SAME AREA AND THAT THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT LEGISLATION SHOULD BE BASED ON THE IDEA THAT THOSE BUSINESSES HAVE A REASONABLE TIME TO ACCOM PLISH SUCH AN ACT . I T HINK A PUBLIC A CCOMMODATION L A W N OW SHOULD STAN D ONL Y AS THE LAST RESORT TO A SSURE THAT DISCRIMINATIO N IS ELIMINAT ED . .. B U T THAT SU C H A LAW WO ULD GRANT A REAS O NABLE T I ME F O R CITIES AND BU SINES SES TO CARRY OUT THIS FUNCTION BEFORE FEDERAL �27 INTERVENTION. IT MIGHT EVEN BE NECESSARY THAT THE TIME FACTOR BE MADE MORE LENIENT IN FAVOR OF SMALLER CITIES AND COMMUNITIES. . . FOR WE ALL KNOW THAT LARGE METROPOLITAN AREAS HAVE THE CAPABILITY OF ADJUSTING TO CHANGES MORE RAPIDLY THAN SMALLER COMMUNITIES. PERHAPS .. THIS TOO ... SHOULD BE GIVEN CONSIDERATION IN YOUR LEGISLATION. BUT THE POINT I WANT TO EMPHASIZE AGAIN IS THAT NOW IS THE TIME FOR LEGISLATIVE ACTION. ISSUE . OR TURN WE CANNOT DODGE THE WE CANNOT LOOK BACK OVER OUR SHOULDERS THE CLOCK BACK TAKE ACTION NOW TO ASSURE TO THE l860 1 S. WE MUST A GREATER FUTURE OUR CITIZENS AND OUR COUNTRY. FOR �28 A HUNDRED YEARS AGO THE ABOLISHMENT OF SLAVERY WON THE UNITED STATES THE ACCLAIM THE WHOLE WORLD WHEN IT MADE EVERY OF AMERICAN FREE IN THEORY. NOW THE ELIMINATION OF SEGREGATION WHICH IS SLAVERY'S STEPCHILD .... IS A CHALLENGE TO ALL OF US TO MAKE EVERY AMERICAN FREE IN FACT AS WELL AS IN THEORY ... AND AGAIN TO ESTABLISH OUR NATION AS THE TRUE CHAMPION OF THE FREE WORLD. MR . CHAIRMAN AND MEMBERS OF THE COMMITTEE ~ .. . I WA NT T O THANK YO U FOR THE OP PORTUNITY O F TE L LING YOU ABOUT AT L ANT A 'S E FFORTS TO P R O VID E EQUALIT Y OF CITI Z E NSHIP T O ALL WITHIN ITS B ORDERS. �I ' August 19, 1963 Mr. Lamar Moore Moore and Moo re P . O . Box 190 Moultr ie, Georgia Dear Mr. Moore: This will a c knowledge re c eipt of your letter of August 17th in which you enclosed a pamphlet prepared by the Virginia Commission on Constitutional GQvermnent dealing with the proposed Civil Rights Bill from Congress. I will be delighted to read this pamphlet and appreciate your sending it to me. Sincerely yours, Ivan Allen, Jr. IAJr/br �MOORE & MOORE ATTORNEYS AND COUNSELLORS AT LAW MOULTRIE, GEORGIA L . L . MOORE (19621 P . 0 . BOX \90 LAMAR MOORE TELEPHONE 985-1 2 13 August 17, 1963 Hono ra bl e Iva n All e n Ma yor, City of Atl a nta Atl a nt a , Ge org i a Dear Mr. Al l e n: I e nclos e a pamphl e t pr epa r ed by th e Vi r gini a Commi ss i on on Co ns ti tu ti onal Gov ernment d ea ling with t he pr opo sed Civi l Ri ghts Bill from Congress . I b e li ev e t hi s i s a good s t a t eme nt not onl y of oppos itio n to th e Bill but of the bas i c probl em tha t th e na t io n i s e nco unter ing in th e ad mini s trat i on of such l aws . I re prese nt ma ny c l ie nts i n th e tax a nd l abor f i e lds a nd I am f ind ing t hat t h e bur eaucra ti c admini s t ra tion of the b es t int e nd ed l aws mor e a nd more is b ec oming a n unr easo na bl e burde n upon th e citize ns . Thi s pa rti c ul ar l aw is one of th e type whi ch undo ubt edly ca n brea k down our c once pt th a t Gov ernme nt s hou l d be one of l aw rath e r tha n one of ma n. I would not wa nt to trust to th e mos t mor a l, highly r es pec t ed , mos t b enevol e nt ex ec utiv e th e adm ini s tr a ti on of suc h a l aw as i s propo sed i n thi s Civil Ri ghts Bill. Rega rd l e ss of wh ic h s i de of t h e i nt egra t io n i ss ue one might b e on, the ev i l i n thi s Bill i s not c oncer ned with th a t ques tion; th e e vil is th a t s uch a l aw h e l ps to brea k down a nd undermin e th e Ame ri ca n s yst em of j uri s pr ud e nc e a nd ba s i c co ncept s of a Co ns tit utio na l Gov ernme nt. I am s ubmit ting thi s t o you b eca use I wond e r ed if you ha d f ull y t a ken i nto c ons id era tion th e ul t i ma t e po ss ibil i t ies of s uch a l aw. LM: g Enc l. �October 25, 1963 Mr. William J . Johnson Department of Political Science Tulane University Box 1855 New Orleans 18, Louisiana Dear Mr. Johnson: Thank you for your inquiry about how Atlanta handles race relations. I believe the attached testimony which the Mayor made before the Senate Commerc.e Committee is the best summary which we could furnish y-ou. Sincerely yours, Ivan Allen, Jr., Mayor IAJr/br �Depa rtment of Political Scien ce Tula ne Univer s ity ox 1855 New Orle ans 18 , Louisiana Mayor Ivan Allen City Hall Atlanta, Georgia Dear Ma yor Allen: I am a membe r of the Gr~dua te Division, Politica l Sci en ce, Tulane University. My t ask is~ difficult, and it is felt , worthy one. It i nvolve s c orre s pond i ng wit h a number of cities ha vi ng a hete roge neous populat i on for t he purpose of obta i ni ng i nforma tion re ga r di ng the na ture a nd t yp3 f organi za ti on t he se cities ha ve crea ted to s eek solutions to their r a ce pr oblem . It is hoped t ha t thi s i nforma ti on wi l l be an i nvalua ble source for mak i ng recommenda ti ons re ques t ed by t he cit y of New Orleans fo r t he purpose of det ermi ni ng the mos t fe as ible type of organiza ti on to co pe with it s race problem. Your cit y was sele cte d be caus e we hope to benefit from your experi ence i n this delica te matter . An y consi derat i on given t his re ques t woul d be enor mous ly appr e c iated and hel pful. I am l ook i ng wit h pl easure t o hear ing from you . Si ncreely yours , d/~11#~ li l liam J. J ohr; son �
  • Tags: Box 17, Box 17 Folder 13, Folder topic: Civil Rights Bill | 1963
  • Record Created: April 18, 2017
  • Record Updated: December 29, 2017

Box 17, Folder 13, Document 9

http://allenarchive.iac.gatech.edu/originals/ahc_CAR_015_017_013_009.pdf
  • Result Type: Item
  • Item Type: Text
  • Title: Box 17, Folder 13, Document 9
  • Text: _ Bill Would Infringe Upon | State or Property Rights By E. W. KENWORTHY Special to The New York Times WASHINGTON, July 18 — Attorney General Robert ¥F, Kennedy denied today that the Administration's civil Tights bill would “improperly” inter- fere with either the richts of the states or the rights of priy- ate property. Southern opponents argue; that four sections of the bill, dealing with “schools, voting, public accommodations and Fed- eral funds, are an infringement on states’ rights, They are joined by man. Northern legislators of tot Parties in asserting that the Proposed ban on discrimination in public facilities would impair property rights, The Attorney"@eneral aa- |dressed himself Pes these arguments toda “he began testifying on the/bill/Before the Senate Judiciary ngommittee. The committee, headed by Sen- ator James O, Hassland of Mis- Sissippf, has n@WEMGin recent times reported, Sul@ivil rights bill. ‘tag? Mr. Kennedy @etused the Southerners, in Gfflct, of for- getting the debates in the Con- stitutional Convention and mis- applying ‘their fayorite doc- trine. He said: “States’ rights, as our fore- fathers conceived it, was a pro- tection of ‘the right of the in- dividual citizen. Those who ta Rebuts Southern Ciarges preach most frequently about States Rights today..are not those seeking..the protection of the individual citizen, but his exploitation.
  • Tags: Box 17, Box 17 Folder 13, Folder topic: Civil Rights Bill | 1963
  • Record Created: April 18, 2017
  • Record Updated: April 30, 2021

Box 17, Folder 13, Document 46

http://allenarchive.iac.gatech.edu/originals/ahc_CAR_015_017_013_046.pdf
  • Result Type: Item
  • Item Type: Text
  • Title: Box 17, Folder 13, Document 46
  • Text: Department of Political Science Tulane University Box 1855 New Orleans 18, Louisiana Mayor Ivan Allen City Hall Atlanta, Georgia Dear Mayor Allen: I am 4 member of the Graduate Division, Political Science, Tulane University. My task is a difficult, and it is felt, worthy one. It involves corresponding with a number of cities having a heterogeneous population for the purpose of obtaining information regarding the nature and typ2 of organization these cities have created to seek solutions to their race problem. It is hoped that this information will be an invaluable source for making recommendations requested by the city of New Orleans for the purpose of determining the most feasible type of organization to cope with its race problem. Your city was selected because we hope to benefit from your ex- perience in this delicate matter. Any consideration given this request would be enortiously appreciated and helpful. I am looking with pleasure to hearing from you. Sincreely yours, Ulller fp lee yet William J. Johnson
  • Tags: Box 17, Box 17 Folder 13, Folder topic: Civil Rights Bill | 1963
  • Record Created: April 18, 2017
  • Record Updated: April 30, 2021

Box 17, Folder 13, Document 16

http://allenarchive.iac.gatech.edu/originals/ahc_CAR_015_017_013_016.pdf
  • Result Type: Item
  • Item Type: Text
  • Title: Box 17, Folder 13, Document 16
  • Text: ‘7 Sif ies eS See ESS eee ee September 23, 1963 Hon, Eleamor P, Sheppard, Mayor City of Richmond Richmond 19, Virginia Dear Mayor Sheppard: In the absence of Mayor Allen, I would like to reply to your letter of September 20th. There is very little information written down regarding bi-racial committees in the City of Atlanta. Iam enclosing a copy of Mayor Allen's testimony before the Senate Commerce Committee which tells ina general way what has taken place in Atlanta. As you will note from reading it, we have not appointed one large bi-racial Committee but we have appointed such committees to work mith specific problems. Should you have any further questions, we will be glad to try to answer them, Sincerely yours, Ann Drummond, Executive Secretary AD/br Enclosure
  • Tags: Box 17, Box 17 Folder 13, Folder topic: Civil Rights Bill | 1963
  • Record Created: April 18, 2017
  • Record Updated: April 30, 2021

Box 17, Folder 13, Document 17

http://allenarchive.iac.gatech.edu/originals/ahc_CAR_015_017_013_017.pdf
  • Result Type: Item
  • Item Type: Text
  • Title: Box 17, Folder 13, Document 17
  • Text: ELEANOR P. SHEPPARD MATOR RICHMOND I[9, VIRGINIA September 20, 1963 The Honorable Ivan Allen, Jr. Mayor of Atlanta Atlanta, Georgia Dear Mayor Allen: The City of Richmond has recently appointed a bi-racial commission to seek solutions to community problems. The commission has expressed an interest in materials and experiences of similar commissions in other cities of the South, and asked me to request either printed, mimeographed or any publications known to your city and avail- able for our information. I will appreciate your consider- ation personally and most gratefully. Sincerely, Ter
  • Tags: Box 17, Box 17 Folder 13, Folder topic: Civil Rights Bill | 1963
  • Record Created: April 18, 2017
  • Record Updated: April 30, 2021

Box 17, Folder 13, Document 12

http://allenarchive.iac.gatech.edu/originals/ahc_CAR_015_017_013_012.pdf
  • Result Type: Item
  • Item Type: Text
  • Title: Box 17, Folder 13, Document 12
  • Text: September 30, 1963 Miss Janet Ellen Maglio Riviera Beach High School P. O. Box 10496 Riviera Beach, Florida Dear Miss Maglio: In reply to your letter of September 26th lam enclosing a copy of the testimony given by Mayor Allen before the Senate Commerce Committee. The City of Atlanta has not established one large human rights commission as you will see from reading the testimony. We have, however, appointed affected bi-racial committees to work out specific problems, With appreciation for your inquiry, Iam Sincerely yours, Ann Drummond, Executive Secretary AD/br Enclosure
  • Tags: Box 17, Box 17 Folder 13, Folder topic: Civil Rights Bill | 1963
  • Record Created: April 18, 2017
  • Record Updated: April 30, 2021

Box 17, Folder 13, Document 11

http://allenarchive.iac.gatech.edu/originals/ahc_CAR_015_017_013_011.pdf
  • Result Type: Item
  • Item Type: Text
  • Title: Box 17, Folder 13, Document 11
  • Text: ARTHUR J. GOLDBERG Confirmed September 25, 1962 by voice vote Senator Thurman of South Carolina asked to be recorded as voting against him BYRON S, WHITE Confirmed April 11, 1962 by voice vote In a speech, Senator Russell said he was for his confirmation (See page 5835, Congressional Record) HUGO BLA CK Confirmed August 17, 1937 Senator Russell was "paired" for confirmation - he did not vote WILLIAM O, DOUGLAS Confirmed April 4, 1939 Russell voted yes TOM C, CLARK Confirmed August 18, 1949 Russell voted yes JOHN M, HARLAN Confirmed March 16, 1955 j Russell voted no
  • Tags: Box 17, Box 17 Folder 13, Folder topic: Civil Rights Bill | 1963
  • Record Created: April 18, 2017
  • Record Updated: April 30, 2021

Box 17, Folder 13, Document 25

http://allenarchive.iac.gatech.edu/originals/ahc_CAR_015_017_013_025.pdf
  • Result Type: Item
  • Item Type: Text
  • Title: Box 17, Folder 13, Document 25
  • Text: he Baily Times Press-Radio Center, Telephone 532-6211 Gainesville, Georgia August 3, 1963 Mayor Ivan Allen City Hall Atlanta, Georgia Dear Mayor Allen: I thought you would be interested in the enclosed editorial. Cordially he dyes ae Editor "ee eraphsok The Georgia Poultry Times and Radio Station WGGA, Gainesville. Ga. @ Radio Station WRGA, Rome, Ga. @ Radio Station WAAX, Gadsden, Ala.
  • Tags: Box 17, Box 17 Folder 13, Folder topic: Civil Rights Bill | 1963
  • Record Created: April 18, 2017
  • Record Updated: April 30, 2021