Box 13, Folder 21, Document 76
Text Item Type Metadata
do so, to beautify it, to build it up. But if they wish to live in
other sections of the city, better located, closer to places of work,
or for other reasons, they will also be free to do so. In fact,
the living in close contact and the mixing of peoples of all na-
tons and of all races will be encouraged, for this will hasten the
destruction of all forms of separatism passed down as a heri-
tage from capitalism, will tend to freely amalgamate all peoples.
Thus, in a general way, we see the tremendous possibilities
for the Negro in a Soviet America. No privileges for the whites
which the Negroes do not at the same time have, full equal
tights—this is the minimum to be expected from a Soviet America.
But today some eight million Negroes—two-thirds of the
“gro people—live in and around the plantation area, in the
most backward section of the country. The basic work will have
bo be done here. Here the real economic basis for equality, the
“cial and political realization of equality, is to be guaranteed.
The Soviet Negro Republic
We assume here that the new Negro Republic created as a
Fesult of the revolution for land and freedom is a Soviet Republic
and that this Republic has settled the question of self-determina-
tion in favor of federation with the Soviet United States. Under
Such conditions, we will try to picture in its main features the
transformation which can and will take place in this territory.
The actual extent of this new Republic would in all prob-
ability be approximately the present area in which the Negroes
Constitute the majority of the population. In other words it would
be approximately the present plantation area. It would be cer-
tain to include such cities as Richmond and Norfolk, Va., Coluim-
bia and Charleston, S. C., Atlanta, Augusta, Savannah and Macon,
Georgia, Montgomery, Alabama, New Orleans and Shreveport,
La., Little Rock, Arkansas, and Memphis, Tennessee. In the
actual determination of the boundaries of the new Republic,
other industrial cities may be included. The actual settlement of
the question of boundaries will depend largely on the steps taken
to assure well-rounded economic development to the Negro
Republic. This question we will discuss shortly.
What will be the basis of political power? Who will hold
the political power in this territory?
At the present time political power is in the hands of the
plantation masters and the capitalists. The democracy which
permits the voters to elect this or that representative of the in-
terests of the large landlords and the capitalists is limited only
to a section of the white population. The Negroes are practically
entirely excluded. There is less democracy here than in any other
part of the country.
As a result of the revolution the plantation masters and the
capitalists will be overthrown. The formerly exploited classes
of the population will come to power. These will be the workers,
the former share-croppers, small tenants and small individual
landowners. Because the Negroes are in a majority, especially
of the exploited classes, the new governmental bodies will be pre-
dominantly composed of Negroes. The actual working out of
real democracy in this territory—democracy for the majority
of the people and not for the minority as under capitalism—
will result in the Negroes playing the principal role in the new
It would, however, be wrong to say that the new government
would be a dictatorship of the Negroes. Political power is based
not upon racial characteristics but upon classes. The new pol-
itical power would bea dictatorship of the workers and the small
farmers. Since most of the workers and the small farmers in this
territory are Negroes, they would naturally compose the greater
part of the personnel of the new town, township, county and re-
gional government bodies.
The Soviet has proven to be the international form of this
kind of governmental power. The first Soviets were created by
the Russian Revolution of 1905, and were established as the
form of the dictatorship of the proletariat as a result of the
Russian Revolution of 1917. Since then in revolutions which
have taken place in Germany, Hungary, Austria, Spain, China,
Cuba and other countries, Soviets have also appeared as the
form of power of the workers and peasants. The Soviets which
will arise in the old South will be somewhat as follows:
They will arise locally, here and there, as the revolution
starts, and spread as it develops further. Let us try to picture
the composition of ‘one of these Soviets, which will hold power
in a certain locality. On this Soviet there will be representatives
of the share-croppers, tenants and wage-workers of the planta-
tions; then representatives, let us say, of the workers in a local
sawmill or of a fertilizer plant, colton gin, cotton-seed < ae
tory, or nearby textile mill; there might be one or two po pas
small landowners. This Soviet will represent the intere farmers.
workers from the mills and plantations and we eal shi oer
It will embody the alliance between the workers an ate
farmers, It will be a dictatorship of these eee lp ats
power to defend the gains of the revolution ané frais 5 Aesth
tempts of the former plantation masters and capitalists ¢
sains of the revolution are conse d ; a
re ill unite to form the new Soviet Negro Te
The central Soviet body of the Republic will be On a ae
representatives of the ame interests which are 1: rf ane does
local Soviets. The term “Soviet Negro Republic”, t eaiaely of
not mean a Republic or a government composed Ba eee
Negroes. Whites as well as Negroes will participate hie shure-
power—white workers as well as Negro qe ae seesftek
croppers as well as Negro share-croppers. put ae = democracy,
Nexro Republic” does express the fact that CE Serantnien ‘sell,
and the important role played by earess ae 2 saat in accordance
hive placed the Negroes in the bodies of governme
with their real majority. ing class
It must also be borne in mind that the prea oral
of the South is composed entirely of whites. r e re altrhne
disfranchise and expropriate the ee eal class dis-
class. This, of course, will be done on the ae will result in
tinction and not race distinction. Nevertheless, soe
cutting down the number of enfranchised white citizens.
have somewhat of a similar si D the
In ie years 1867-1877 a revolutionary dictatorship rare for-
South, The purpose of this agitate vehi a a dictator-
mer slaveowners from returning to power. middle class, sup-
ship of the Northern capitalists and ee a Titiaay of whom
ported principally by the former Negro © Sv cally organ:
were in the army which patrolled the Sou h or ales supported.
ized rifle clubs and militias. The dictatorship ae The county
especially at the start, by the poor while 28 osed almost en-
governments in the plantation areas were oN caree were in the
tirely of Negroes. In a number of states ve ae the important
majority in the legislatures, aed Bey held many
d these Soviet
tuation in our own history.
state offices. A number of Negroes were elected to the Senate
and House of Representatives in Washington. If at that time full
democracy had been in force the Negroes would have had even
larger representation in the state and national governments.
After the defeat of these revolutionary governments, the Negroes
were completely disfranchised.
Under the revolutionary government of the Soviets, however,
full democracy for the majority will be assured by creating the
economic basis for this democracy.
The Economic Foundation of Equality
Among the first actions of a Soviet government would be a
decree recognizing the confiscation of the large landownings
where this has taken place or authorizing such confiscation if it
has not yet taken place, converting all privately-owned land into
the property of the whole people without compensation, and the
confiscation of all livestock and implements of the large land-
owners for the use of the people.
Thus would the destruction of the plantation system in the
South be authorized according to revolutionary law.
The land would now be the property of the people as a
whole. Local Soviets or land committees, composed of the poor
farmers and the farm workers, could now determine the allotment
of land to the former tenants and share-cropeprs. While the land
would remain the property of the Republic, it would be divided
up among the poor farmers whose right to till their farms would
be recognized. Those who already have a small holding of land
would be permitted to continue working it and they might even
be given more land after the needs of the landless are satisfied.
All previous debts and obligations would be cancelled. Finan-
cing, the banks and credit would now be in the hands of the Soviet
state. With the removal of all restricting forces, such as the old
credit institution and the plantation system, a complete trans-
formation of agriculture in the South would now be possible. The
most backward area under capitalism could now be turned into a
source of well-being for its population. Cotton, the most im-
portant commercial crop, which under capitalism is the scourge
of millions of toilers, can now be turned into the instrument for
rapid economic and social development.
From the huge plantations as they exist today two kinds of
agricultural enterprises are likely to develop in the ek
Soviet Power. There are about 40,000 plantations ms Seats
The size of the average plantation is about Tae nee os
slightly more than half of this acreage 18 worke Seca ¢ with
share-croppers. The rest is worked by the landowner ae
Wage-workers, Cotton is grown 71 the tenant eae vacate
tation, and the other section is used as a reece He reise
the purpose of growing feed crops. On the hs e teas
tenant holdings together with a certain section © ea decennial
could be turned into small farms worked by the fo Se
On the other hand, a good part of the wage-labor Se Lee
plantation could be turned into model state farms ae Peas
These could serve from the very beginning a5 oe 18 meaner
for the surrounding small holders of land also to ome ae
For the advantage of this form of farming, the soc
Would immediately become apparent.
Some of these plantations are on 4 ¢ aueane
are over 400 slamnanion for instance, which eis ny a os
acreage of about 3,500, of which 1,700 acres are Tease
by the landowners themselves with wage workers. ae ee
plantation in the world is situated at Scott, Mer Ai - This
by Oscar Johnson, one of the high officials now in Pe adie
plantation covers 37,000 acres. On plantations © aa heaee
use of modern machinery and the latest and a Sal by the
ods of agriculture, the benefits of which will be a
producers themselves, will serve 48 tremendous e SuilaihEs
for the creation of similar giant farms out of the sm
, : r the
The technical transformation of agriculture oe igi
first time become possible in the old South: d by the back-
wealth is being lost in soil erosion which is oii sao system.
ward methods established by the credit and hed away. With
The good soil is being exhausted or mney "63 ‘et Government,
the aid of trained specialists supplied by seo Tnatead of a one-
new methods of agriculture will be institut ie
sided, one-crop agriculture, which is demabf™™ 4 plan
and creditors, it will be possible to have a ro i
agriculture. Inferior land may be withdrawn
lumber, food crops may be raised on other , etc.
reiiran oe ae of veoh and the cultivation of tone’ ot
Abi: le-breeding, as the trac
tremendous scale. There
Live-stock breeding will replace ie
other agricultural machinery replace the mule. The huge collec-
tive farms can be tremendous cotton-growing factories. The land,
no longer divided up into small tenant lots, can now be plowed
by a tractor, planted by a seeding machine, chopped by modern
agricultural equipment. The mechanical cotton picker, whose
development has been retarded by the present system of growing
cotton, could now be employed profitably. There would be a
tremendous saving in human labor. Hundreds of thousands of
farm families would now have the possibilities of leisure and
peace, plenty and abundance, education and culture.
Social planning will make this possible. The nearest capital-
ism has come to “planning” is to plan the destruction of millions
of acres of cotton under the A.A.A. and the Bankhead Bill. The
new planning will plan, not destruction, but production and dis-
Where will the resources and capital be obtained for this
transformation of Southern agriculture? At the present time the
bankers, other creditors, large commission and merchanting
houses and the large landowners obtain great profits from the
cotton country. Much of the surplus now produced in the cotton
country is accumulated by the financiers in the form of exorbi-
tant interest, in some cases reaching as high as 700 per cent per
annum. This parasitism will no longer exist. All cotton will
be sold directly to government agencies either from the collective
or state farms or by the cooperatives of the individual owners.
Government credit will be made available, on easy terms, to the
poorest section of the farming population and to the collectives.
Thus the capital produced by cotton cultivation will not flow into
the coffers of Wall Street but will be utilized for improving
Southern agriculture and the conditions of its workers.
But this will not be the only source of capital. The govern-
ment of the Negro Republic could allocate to agriculture addi-
tional funds from the revenues of the State, largely obtained from
Thirdly, theve would be even greater aid from the Central
Soviet Government of the United States. The principal policy
of the Central Soviet Government with regard to the Negro Re-
public would be to establish the basis of full equality by rapidly
raising the economic level of this region. Funds would immedi-
ately be allocated for agricultural and industrial development in
the South: the necessary skilled technicians and experts wou
i by the
be supplied. This was precisely the: poliey flO ae
government of the Soviet Union in relation to e on SY anion
where the formerly oppressed nations lived. one Al
could do this, with its relatively limited rue pect”
Soviet Government in this country will be me ms ees
much greater scale. This question is connected wi
building of industry in the South.
i very un-
In comparison to the rest of De Sy ts, ae of the
developed and unbalanced industry 1m the p “tl towns, there are
South today. With the exception of Ba k Belt. The only
No important large-scale industries 1n the ich js just off the
heavy industrial center is in Birmingnst xtile industry, by
northern tip of the Alabama Black Belt: ue din the North and
far the largest industry in the South, is centere i (ilGencnia
South Carolina Piedmont and in the North ee saved from the
The rayon and tobacco industries are ae ‘e lantation area
plantation area. The only industries ae th agriculture, such
itself are those which are closely connected viper, turpentine.
as fertilizer, cotton gins, cotton-seed oil, lum ve ante oeot
The basic policy of the Soviet Sbekniee see as already
would be to industrialize this area. Such in
s ‘j Even before
exist would pass into the hands of the Soren be: to open
new industries are built the first steps are ey
* uc an
: s, to incorporate §
the textile industry to Negro workers, of the Negro Re-
important area as Birmingham in the territory oi ge building in-
public in order to create a basis for the me Se engaeane
dustry; to modernize and improve the ferti ee ae at hae
and other similar industrial plants; the eoaee vader the com-
in the exploitation of the pine woods, w ri pean ie
Petitive capitalist system, are NOW being eh abating:
develop the furniture industry in TPE +s. the ean
One of the principal problems online t of such a large-
of agricultural machinery. The developer ham area would
Seale industry in connection with the ee at been developed
be on the order of the day. Birmingham = petition of the north-
to its full potentialities because of the eee itor aveded by all
cn al produring center. Yet moter of hg
Specialists in the field to be ae as
industry. There are close at hand the necessary coal, ore and
dolomite. This could become the great manufacturing center of
tractors and other agricultural machinery which will be a great
force in bringing about socialism on the former slave land.
This area is also rich in water power. Capitalism has only
just begun the development of electric power in the South and
this growth has been retarded because there is not sufficient
industry to make use of this power. Under the planned economy
of a Soviet state, old industry would be reconstructed, new in-
dustries would arise.
We have only indicated some of the possibilities. Still greater
ones would unfold in a Soviet America. This much is important
and certain: with the overthrow of the landlord-capitalist power
and the establishment of the Soviet Negro Republic, the most
backward section of the United States would develop into an
advanced, wealthy area. The rich resources of the territory, until
now wasted and plundered by the capitalists, would be turned
to their own account by the workers and farmers, with the aid of
the working class of the North and northern resources. Then
would the basis of Negro equality be established. And the so-
called poor whites would also be liberated from poverty, extreme
exploitation and backwardness.
The Realization of Social Equality
When the slaves were liberated in the South as a result of the
Civil War the slave blocks and auction houses were burned to
the ground by the former chattels. One can well imagine with
what elation the liberated people of the South will now burn
the jim-crow signs, symbols of the capitalist slavery of white and
Negro alike. The bonfire of jim-crow signs will light the way
to real freedom.
The power of the workers and poor farmers will create for
the first time a culture for the masses of the South. New, mod-
ern school buildings will arise by the thousands. Illiteracy, the
shame of the South, will be wiped out. Technical schools and
universities will also become a southern product. We think it
entirely safe to predict that the public school system in all its
branches will develop at a rate in the South exceeding any pre-
vious records in the history of American capitalism.
Much will have to be done in the field of health protecton.
The diseases of poverty—pellagra, hookworm, etc.—which plague
the southern masses today, will for the first time na pre :
foe. This foe will be victorious because it will a a a
do away with poverty, the prime cause of ae ere
fessional care and public hospitalization will for ahr
be available on a large scale to the Negro Seas Ste
whites, President Roosevelt’s present estate 1n cre eae
other resorts of the millionaires, can be turned mee eee
hospitals, clubs, etc. Palm Beach car become the ane
workers and toiling farmers. The pine woods ee ceithe
as health-giving resorts. All the best ne ane ee
present ruling class can become rest homes or De enone
Much will also have to be done in oe = ata
the white population. The revolution wil ee Die
basis of prejudice, but socialist education W1
t f prejudice. we. H
S Galy oe ie Thesis of socialism is the pony ene 2
the full and equal development of the Negro Pe NED = aale
slave power and under the capitalist pone paar sie
have been retarded, oppressed, persecuted. e e at gaa a
the workers and the poor farmers they can ecactcel sane
realize all their potentialities. Only then as a He eluate
will they be able to ee eae and eq
81 the peoples of the world. eee ae
This is sity ‘ mere peep into the vista ae Oe othey ae
for the masses. Such things are not easy to achie ee on
as the result of hard struggle. But why ade De
and powers of ours, which the exploiting classes
their benefit, to our benefit?
We must begin ioe by ores
f i aily struggles to 1mp ; the
tha ea aake ore hove all we must hale ant TS aig
only revolutionary party of the working ¢ oe sea anil
Party. This Party, composed of staunch a ae te aa abe
tant workers, is training and leading ve wore g
Oppressed masses towards their great objectiv®-
Join the Communist Party, help create the powerful, &
ich i i towards Socialism.
vanguard which is leading the masses
i ing our
nizing, by prepatins
our conditions, by learn-
i by Workers LIBRARY ©
P og eS Sta. D, New York City. June,
What’s Back of Anti-Discrimination Bills?
The past year or two a wave of propaganda has demanded the
enactment by Congress and the several States of so-called “‘Anti-
The assumption of many persons is that these measures are a
generous and timely effort that will bring contentment to all the
people. But there is impressive evidence that they are, instead, merely
one more attempt of the Communists to stir up trouble.
There undoubtedly is some discrimination against many Negroes,
and to a certain extent against many Jews. But it is in large part
merely the expression by the 117 million non-Negroes and non-Jews
of their choice of employees or fellow-employees, or of companions
or associates. Such choice is, in the very nature of things, a part of
Negroes and Jews in the United States have had greater oppor-
tunities than in any other country on earth. On the day the New York
legislative committees held a hearing on an Anti-Discrimination Bill,
the New York papers carried long articles telling of the election of a
Negro as President of the Bar Association of Dutchess County, New
York, and mentioning incidentally that his daughter is a Justice of the
Domestic Relations Court in New York City.
Increasing numbers of Negroes are constantly attaining distinc-
tion in many fields. There is less reason now for anti-discrimination
laws than there might have been ten, twenty or thirty years ago. The
situation has been steantly improving in that slow but sure way which
is the soundest way of all, but which apparently annoys the zealots
and fanatics who wish to see any situation they think wrong righted
over night. And many good citizens, who have lacked opportunity
really to study the matter, are today being misled by these very
fanatics, and by an alien-minded element with aims and purposes of
Most Americans regret the cxistence of any discrimination. ‘True
education, patience and greater emphasis on the Christian quality of
charity (that is, good will) will accelerate the improvement in race
relations that has long been noted. But to resort to compulsion by
legislation is not the remedy. That will set the clock back—and will
probably do worse. The Eighteenth Amendment proved that.
We submit herewith an offset copy of 2 papal: published in
1935 by the Workers Library Publishers (the Communist Party of the
é “Loli i-dis-
U.S.A.). A perusal of this su ts the likelihood that the ah
eanineton prandion for which many good people, including oe
organizations, have fallen, is of wholly alien origin.
“The Negroes in a Soviet America,” as the reader will see, 35 2
direct sacitennent by the Communists to bloody revolt pee
white people of the United States, urging them to set up 4 ov: male
of government and affiliate with Soviet Russia. (clike Fores ce
Page 2 urges social equality as “a minimum desire” of thi er n
Page $5 is the statement, “The Negro people can find ins anon
> ea a eoeed e Coane bec Bushnell Hart's
:--" etc.; and upon consulting Volume
“History of the ieiterteanl Nation,” it will be found thantye at se
Of these Negroes were the leaders in Negro revolts in W schitone
white men, women and children were mercilessly slaughtered.
i a iscrimination or of
On page 38 is the statement that, “Any act of discrimination
Prejudice seine a Negro will become a crime under the revolutionary
The anti-discrimination bills carry out this idea precisely!
* + has
At sent moment, of course, the Communist technique
changed “it sould not aid in securing a continuance of lengdenie ot
the expected help in Russian reconstruction if so crude a Dok
Were circulated now. Nevertheless, as vai Daly Pr aiversity
is book, “The Real Soviet Russia” ee by the Yale eh
Press, 1945), this current attitude of the Communists ts ae y OF nist
from which the Communists will return to their ruthless
program when the current need has passed.
James W. Ford, one of the authors of the pamphlet, ee
Several times the candidate of the Communist Party for Mice ae
“James S, Allen," the other author, is the alias for Sol Auer ;
activities were a matter of record before the Dies Committee.
i i iti " in a Soviet America”
This special offset edition of “The Negroes in a "
has been Broghe out in order that the people se fee . pe ae
Standing of what is back of the present hullabaloo
ua. 7 "
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