Box 13, Folder 21, Document 80

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Box 13, Folder 21, Document 80

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DETROIT: Pelicesiea Scotter Tor cover while bers ight ite back at oan snipers

HIINISTELELAE on the deadly economies of Segregation: the time-bomb in the core of the American city


thls background. Stokelay America has been grappling system with sufficient stark- to proceed, not at once,

‘TO. GET an idea of the despalr

behind America’s race riots
5 a considerable effort
from most of us in

We are not wsed to think.
= of America in images of
ind even If we were,
fe poverty salons at afflicts the


ev ae
The whale fary, oa a Io.
of tolling But there 3:

some facts gua can a
aan and

rer 8 than a

—tne in three of the Negroes
in most Northern cities are
unemployed, or as good ai
unemployed (according to the
latest Department of

Thirteen sage nites after ie

there is ah
the Tehoole th ‘than ever before;

i jod of ey ja
beam apie ean

|, after

ghettoes (where most
Negroes live) have decreased
during the 1980s.

This is also after several
years of mapire|teled
faa ihe Negroes,

ly one of which ha come
meat le been man
in American society, neve
which nearly every np
help the poor—and the
are, basically, tbe Regs
‘been transmuted Into a
device ioe aes the rich
ficher and the poor poorer,

The kind of irony confrost-
ing America is that the
Federal money for the urban
Tenewal programmes — ren-
ay this year at £200 million

Betng divested into Te-
Placing im dwellings with
middleclass housing, which
the slumedwellers cannot

The situation tx one in
which a city like Detrolt can

be serio
7 Lyte

since the iwente samp, Kins

Carmichael, the apastie of ith the problem. since the
Black Power, calle for tivil war a century ago, (This
guerrilla war against the is ommonly advanced in
whites, Jt is an dmmedersje Britain to demonstrate that
and violent in Butthe “you cannot legislate the
maf the ‘Searts of men.) nd
da ay The "ik is that the upsurge of
"3 rt of a context Violence in the negra ghettoes
is whieh ‘ ety murders of American cities aver the
in the South, of Civil Rights lest four am ip 2 new
bs 7 peered ealy Phememendr
three conv ictlon: no sen entral trath is that,
tence of more than ten vears teh unt the end of the
Awd even moderate Negro’ Second world wer, Ameriran
Weaders freely admit their Government was, al least
pmmathy with Carmichadl’s tacitly and. aly erp,
desunciation. Bayard segregatlanlet President
Rusti, lesder of the great Noodram Wiloo—the man
WES Negra march on Con par ging freedom to
What Stokeley ia-say- Europe a dese of the
things have gat first urd canes es
all we've been ie Be
through, there's something federal servires, 1" the sane
patie pene with the period, only the jatervention
the liberals, the of Court
iewn ‘the uniont—the whole vi Imposition of
alliance whieh has not formal apartheid «th
pitas victories, He’ racial zoning legislation.
faith in the ability of
Be coclety to move thet he's As
id ly the Negroes.”

mann, RST ESe
ed commrt: iS
race problems 8 als ie i '
the ee of our
lisordered, bedrag-
, ing democracy.
“Wntil we have learned ta
house everybody, employ
everybedy at decent mae ca
selfrespecting status,
Suarantee his civil liberties,
and tog efi and play)
pie cag poten a
ut the race problem” wi
posed main 2 pee myth a
a dirty civilisation
rig, beeen Bek “Wher ede reteees
white a dirty one!
inxs a clean civilisation the twa te Ne bea u big

‘tan conduct their
ibe te tog ean, nicl Pelicies rotted in the old deal
until ther” Be mzumiernies
att sluggishness of
rica’s response to eee vated to a i
Indictment [s indicated yi white suburbs. The other, ‘the
cals, <r wr United States Hoang
in] the “Re pubes, fae stl
a twas the Projects ar
Samo the first of ‘s ot thas
tone tes ones. More thay black development
battle: a reerely ertensons Of the, old
Pits ee Pa
was the fina ning of th
Tis, noose rowed the Ney a lek:

‘The depression was Aes
the fast ocean on mvc
America confronted

shortcomings of her etono ne

you couldn't igi
against prejudice

Hes | Segal, Epual featermest
Gopertatiy Cemmizi en

7 ‘dni

Even Roosevelt's New Deal

In the


‘Adjustment istration

set jee of News
rs of the land,

subject. ‘The first if

ness to have come to terms
with the basic, economic
nature of the Negro plight—
if anyone had wanted to book
the hard. But the Negro
cane from the New Deal
Aan: worse than he bad
entered il: a de aan gre
geled urban el
But in. a back: im aed ay
ihe New Deal did bring about
the alliance on which the
Negroes pinned their fxith tor
the next generation: the com-
fun frost of the Ne;
Organisations and the white
labour wndons. ‘That alliance
is arguably the natn macel
important reason why
tan cities enjoyed pes
complete rerial peace fir
t Cees years a es
ig as the groupl a
the ae had at Ie:
en rfl allies — notably
iter Reuther’s United Auto

Workers—in the jobs market

From the anions’ point of
view ‘(here was never math
altruism involved. They were

nla seem shrewd, ouoeh te to wee

lions pea
Negroes would make cellent
es w cor
he was in Ud home of
the United A

‘Negroes and the unions fal
sundered in 1960, when ity
ane craft unions and indus-
unions rejoined forces,

and ail ike craft unions old
distrust of Negroes came to
the fore. Tk was an ominous
‘but tnevitable a As
Sutomation ate up the un
kitted and sensi-skilled jobs,
the Negroes were onte a
competitors of the white
workers on the lowest rings
of the ladder.

In the Negroes” war

against sey
schoota is
But in fact the willingness
of the Court to temper the
Constitution ie & ilmes

constitutional eh ihe Gout
had always maintained was

“personal and
could mot be eu
single day. Until
the Court handed down the

unprecedented decision that
desegregation of schools was

merely “ with all duieeete
5 As the Negroes have
Warned With growing bitter
ness, the court could not
have handed the southern
Bates a more perfectly
fashioned weapon for delay.
Ten years later, surveying
the rubble of the desegrega-

entirely tot mach delibera-
tion “and nok enotigh
Nor has the Governoent
demenstrited any more
laerily to enforce the 104
64 Civil
f hts Act was clear: no more
eral funds (o segregabed
Z hooks, That spall hare cat
‘OM about 1,900 of the Seuth’s
rr school districts

us uealion
decided 10 be lenient: lt was
ten years since the Supreme

‘ot ion, ‘the
schools could have even more
time to ease themselves into
result pots far to

ges 5 ernment or r
Mu ‘ort mises oO}
action. An 1865 2
caf Negro fein in ie oath
by 1965, 88 58 cae nae
iv per cel
only 12 per cent —almost
14 years since the hi
court in the land ruled if was
every child's right.

6 The fact is that while
the Urban League...
have beea trying to
move four Negroes into
a suburb which is not
in any ghetto man's
future, 400,000
tenement buildings in
New York City have
deteriorated or been

Hichard award, Scheel of Sica
Work, Colambin Geiverii4y

At the time the Supreme

Court's cautious 1954 ae

was ers down,

cesses, which tore “Tetra

“— this month hed been on
tote a feng time (Amd
Detriot war, in a sense, a
liberal city: tke Ne,
hook, published by
magarine, lists Ht a5 one of thi

ten cities for Negro

ales the ghetto began
mt Debrodt, im

Ever ance

as oa THvement nf
Negroes from the southern
ea io oe narib:

the decline nf ‘a in
‘ihe cotton-finlde, Four million
have moved north sare 104i)
ia million mw in the last
en years. Tundhiris of all
adult Negroes in the eerthern
elias Were born in the aouth,
Mfechantsataon oi the farms,
aed the use af chembpaes,


tern 1s can-


eighteenth century,
them have pil advertise-
ments offering to pay the bus
fares of any Negroes who
ated fo forth Some rural
counties are starvingout their
superfluous black aan by
refusing to take part ip
Frdera Ltood-distribation pro


Willing Or unwilling, scores
Of Negroes pack thelr card-
beard boxes every day and
beard the buses for Harlem,
Watts and Detroit. ‘Their life
has not esuslly helped them
‘towards handling the orban
experience: naturally out of
them are trained to

chop, are illiterate
the — northera
centres, they find aecom:
modation in buildings varated
by whites—whe are making
for the suburbs in the classic
pattern of white, middleclass
ee rant is the
imate ‘ongressional
‘Quarterly that hy 1870 at
least fourteen core-cities will
have papulations more thin
40 percent. black. Three have
pissed that paint already
ene Ballimere and


(Cenoed a net page


LAST YEAR the frig question
which Intelligent white people
were hesitantly asking vee
whether there req

much discrimination agai it

coloured peaple in Brit
Suddenly this week the sume
People io similar bewiler

Tent, are asking
there will soon be a ert

au oy Side ae age oF
ae “he to m

a Sees =
re to ae ae that hines tu

never be as bad bere #5 in
Detroit, And predictably th is
let i Duntan Sandys

former Commenwealth Secre-
tary) to use lt as a reason to

ct ail eclauredmsigration
a revent the *

mille of hall-caste hid
ren "—s “generation of

‘Tha tint Question fs danger-
ou hecsase © titillates
ar latent fascination with
viglence bul becamsg il

eae an already wide-
ritksh cucrcictinn thal
‘the abenace of Telenor i

pen here

soriety. We would do welll the Aceh of a political
recall the monstrows
of the Seathern entlen

remedi are 4 hand,
ug) te or have come t00 late to be

th in Britain, it le
senting to regard the pre-
t nightmare of race rela
a and im the States ax irrele-
ee a it to our situation. After
te Hy the coloured commanity
Ut ea per cat af /
rita ation (

‘tent In ihe US), it

largely of new
rams, too insecurely
tea ignorant of the ‘out:
“ world, or too grateful
{ta higher standard af life,

indians, Indians Bn
ay Princ hamper the deve.
lipment nf strong inimlierent

rt nai, and eaeeelsations Tt is still too
Ow, toe fat th car ‘ 7

in white comenusity (hat
the be children af poliared lnmt
Grants wyii face sUbwigntial
when = they

thelr ‘ti ren
32 Many Neat omth
Harlem, crite is often
esl abcde way of MT f
4 livieg, and Lhe rare To fay @oreming tion

Jeave schoo] seeking better
jobs and homes than their

reais now have. Cur wel-
are system, with all ite
defects, may yet prevent a
coloured underclass from
sinking 19 the depths of os
North Areerican ghetto, And,
in any case, Britain is a less
violent society than the
ou ee is

Briain. tered: cara
tits during the met few rears,
_ Abey are sti i
againel blarks, ax in

bt iil in 1958.
sh is oe that ee
n Por example, 7 spoke
receatly in a West ‘London
church where there are teu
separate youth clubs, one for
English amd the other for
Indian children = When, at
my insistence, the Indian
children were invited to the
meeting and one brave 16
as sevepird, the police
to be os th kee
te fwiere ol
rack Patton tnt tn, that ae



children, aed it may val t

Himwrver, ibe general sala
alles ere, in contrat with

‘the United States, is lik
ihe deceptively calm We

a min ih
dual aes 0 of " private prefer-
ence” are creating

palermo poss dieccimiae
ion In howsing and enspl
ment which it wil be ioe
‘gly difficult to break. We
re ederating the children of
tere immigrants, often in

be ed by automation.

In some places, complaints by

coloured Britons ef police

ndect owtnumber those
ober subject.

the coloured ehermimity ind
that in the absence of any
independent machipery to in
‘vestigate complaints, this
vilal area of race relations
will fester.

Britais’s coloared minosity
is too small to have palfitea)
Significance, except is & Piten.
‘Wal scapegoat at @lection tiene.
‘There ix no aoe ae
to which ee

ively Fepresent nierest

Mach al ybe afirial race Tae
Hows machinery is deviated
more to Barrens asd geet

welfare than io premotiny
racial equality,

peed extension of the
act Relations Ac alters

seme hope that we are at
“ ty a wart fei
me y extending the
Act fo cover diserimination
ateng and insur.
ance, the Government can
ensure thal in Brelain we
shall have an oppertunity,
which América Bas fae, fg
use Law or before the
Freie insoluble
Race a ‘Beard bas
ready deme better, from its
pd at meriestness,
than Mts tramcsat ee
a fe winning 1
dence of eulvuned Pom
it must now be allowed
tackle the real prabiews of
diserinal mation aoa ie must be
given “ing power bo enfarre
ihe la
Tho allornatjves are clear
We can privide effective
redress for the wielim of dis
triminalion, oT we cae
compel (biey ts chease to
aerepl Injuestice ng Wi talce bus
grievances to The trees
Fitain's polnared porpatalien,
ts more ep) pul up we
Injustice fn a

rink, but does 9 rr}
ised tnelely have aly chloe”

Anthony Lester


fs 3° : I fl oes
tt a een ie he Lt
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